Petroleum Distillates (Naphtha) (Rubber Solvent)
- Synonyms: Aliphatic petroleum naphtha; Petroleum naphtha; Rubber solvent
- OSHA IMIS Code Number: 2037
- Related Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 8002-05-9 (Petroleum distillates [naphtha])
- NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: SE7449000
- Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Emergency Response Guidebook: 1268 128
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Petroleum Distillates (Naphtha): Physical description, chemical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more
Exposure Limits and Health Effects
|Exposure Limit||Limit Values||HE Codes||Health Factors and Target Organs|
OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) - General Industry
500 ppm (2,000 mg/m3) TWA
|HE8||Dizziness, headache, anesthesia|
|HE16||Irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat|
|HE11||Death by vascular damage and pulmonary edema|
OSHA PEL - Construction Industry
|The composition of these materials varies greatly, and thus, a single TLV for all types of these materials is no longer applicable. The content of benzene, other aromatics, and additives should be determined in order to arrive at the appropriate TLV.|
OSHA PEL - Shipyard Employment
The composition of these materials varies greatly, and thus, a single TLV for all types of these materials is no longer applicable. The content of benzene, other aromatics, and additives should be determined in order to arrive at the appropriate TLV.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL)
350 mg/m3 TWA
1,800 mg/m3 Ceiling (15 minutes)
|HE7||Dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea|
|HE16||Irritation of the eyes, throat, and skin|
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV)
|TLV was withdrawn in 2009.|
(1,600 mg/m3) TWA (rubber solvent, naphtha)
- Carcinogenic Classification:
- National Toxicology Program (NTP) carcinogenic classification: Not listed
- International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) carcinogenic classification: Group 3 (not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans [crude oil]); Group 3 (not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans [petroleum solvents, including rubber solvent])
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) carcinogenic classification: Not listed
- EPA Inhalation Reference Concentration (RfC): Not established
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Inhalation Minimal Risk Level (MRL): Not established
- NIOSH Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) concentration: 1,100 ppm (10% LEL)
- Petroleum distillates are combustible (NIOSH/IPCS 2001).
- This mixture may contain n-hexane, which is metabolized to the neurotoxin 2,5-hexanedione (see hexane) (Creaser et al. 1983; Ono et al. 1982).
- Exposure to petroleum distillates may increase the risk of developing undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) (Lacey et al. 1999).
- Literature Basis:
- Creaser, C., Welch, J., and Bishop, K.: n-Hexane in petroleum ether fractions. Ann. Occup. Hyg. 27(2): 229-230, 1983.
- Lacey J.V. Jr., Garabrant, D.H., Laing, T.J., Gillespie, B.W., Mayes, M.D., Cooper, B.C., Schottenfeld, D.: Petroleum distillate solvents as risk factors for undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD). Am J Epidemiol 149(8): 761-770, 1999.
- NIOSH: Criteria for a Recommended Standard - Occupational Exposure to Refined Petroleum Solvents. 1977.
- NIOSH: Occupational Health Guideline for Petroleum Distillates (Naphtha). 1978.
- NIOSH: Recommendations for Occupational Safety and Health - Compendium of Policy Documents and Statements. 1992.
- NIOSH/IPCS: International Chemical Safety Cards - Distillates, Petroleum, Solvent-Refined Heavy Paraffinic. 2001.
- Ono, Y., Takeuchi, Y., Hisanaga, N., Iwata, M., Kitoh, J., and Sugiura, Y.: Neurotoxicity of petroleum benzine compared with n-hexane. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 50(3): 219-229, 1982.
- Date Last Revised: 9/6/2012
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA
Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
- Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
- maximum volume: 3 Liters
- maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min
- current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
- analytical solvent: Carbon Disulfide
- alternate analytical solvent: (99:1) Carbon Disulfide: Dimethylformamide
- method reference: OSHA Analytical Method OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA 48)
- method classification: Fully Validated
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