- Synonyms: o,o-Diethyl-o-p-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate; O,O-diethyl O-(p-nitrophenyl) ester Phosphorothioic acid; Diethyl parathion; Ethyl parathion; Parathion-ethyl
- OSHA IMIS Code Number: 1984
- Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 56-38-2
- NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: TF4550000
- Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Emergency Response Guidebook: 2783 152
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Parathion: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more
- OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
- American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) (2000): 0.05 mg/m3 TWA (inhalable fraction vapor); Skin; A4
- National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 0.05 mg/m3 TWA; Skin
- International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Group 3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans
- NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 10 mg/m3
- Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, skin, respiratory system; miosis, blurring or dimness of vision; rhinorrhea; headache; chest tightness, wheezing, laryngeal spasm; salivation; cyanosis; anorexia; nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea; sweating; muscle fasciculation, lassitude (weakness, exhaustion), paralysis; dizziness, confusion, ataxia; convulsions, coma; low blood pressure; cardiac irregularities.
- Health Effects: Cholinesterase inhibition (HE6); Suspect teratogen (HE5)
- Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system, CNS, cardiovascular system, blood cholinesterase
- Parathion is activated to paraoxon by several cytochrome P-450 isoforms.
- Polymorphism in the expression and activity of the enzyme paraoxonase, which inactivates paraoxon, may play a role in susceptibility of workers to have symptoms from occupational parathion exposure.
- Literature Basis:
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Parathion.
- International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Parathion.
- EPA Air Toxics Website: Parathion. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network.
- Lee, B.W., London, L., Paulauskis, J., Myers, J. and Christiani, D.C.: Association between human paraoxonase gene polymorphinsm and chronic symptoms in pesticide-exposed workers. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 45(2): 118-122, 2003.
- Mutch, E., Daly, A.K., Leathart, J.B.S., Blain, P.G. and Williams, F.M.: Do multiple cytochrome P450 isoforms contribute to parathion metabolism in man? Arch. Toxicol. 77(6): 313-320, 2003.
- Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Parathion. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1788-1791.
- Date Last Revised: 07/12/2004
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA
Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
- OSHA Versatile Sampler (OVS-2) - 13 mm XAD-2 tube (270/140 mg sections, 20/60 mesh) with Glass Fiber Filter enclosed
- analytical solvent: Toluene
- maximum volume: 480 Liters
- maximum flow rate: 1.0 L/min
- current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FPD
- method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA 62)
- method classification: Fully Validated
- note: OSHA personnel may obtain sampling tubes from the Salt Lake Technical Center.
Wipe Sampling Method:
- Glass Fiber Filter
- Limit the amount of bulk submitted to one gram or one mL.
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