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Chemical Sampling Information (CSI)
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General Description

Synonyms: o,o-Diethyl-o-p-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate; O,O-diethyl O-(p-nitrophenyl) ester Phosphorothioic acid; Diethyl parathion; Ethyl parathion; Parathion-ethyl

OSHA IMIS Code Number: 1984

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 56-38-2

NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: TF4550000

Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Guide: 2783 152

NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Parathion: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more


Exposure Limits

OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
General Industry: 29 CFR 1910.1000 Z-1 Table -- 0.1 mg/m3; Skin

Construction Industry: 29 CFR 1926.55 Appendix A -- 0.1 mg/m3; Skin

Maritime: 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards -- 0.1 mg/m3
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 0.05 mg/m3 TWA - Inhalable fraction, Vapor and aerosol; Skin; Appendix A4 - Not Classifiable as a Human Carcinogen; BEI

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 0.05 mg/m3 TWA; Skin


Health Factors

Carcinogenic Classification:
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Group 3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans
NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 10 mg/m3

Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, skin, respiratory system; miosis, blurring or dimness of vision; rhinorrhea; headache; chest tightness, wheezing, laryngeal spasm; salivation; cyanosis; anorexia; nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea; sweating; muscle fasciculation, lassitude (weakness, exhaustion), paralysis; dizziness, confusion, ataxia; convulsions, coma; low blood pressure; cardiac irregularities.

Health Effects: Cholinesterase inhibition (HE6); Suspect teratogen (HE5)

Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system, CNS, cardiovascular system, blood cholinesterase

Notes:
  1. Parathion is activated to paraoxon by several cytochrome P-450 isoforms.
  2. Polymorphism in the expression and activity of the enzyme paraoxonase, which inactivates paraoxon, may play a role in susceptibility of workers to have symptoms from occupational parathion exposure.

Literature Basis:
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Parathion.
  • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Parathion.
  • EPA Air Toxics Website: Parathion. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network.
  • Lee, B.W., London, L., Paulauskis, J., Myers, J. and Christiani, D.C.: Association between human paraoxonase gene polymorphinsm and chronic symptoms in pesticide-exposed workers. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 45(2): 118-122, 2003.
  • Mutch, E., Daly, A.K., Leathart, J.B.S., Blain, P.G. and Williams, F.M.: Do multiple cytochrome P450 isoforms contribute to parathion metabolism in man? Arch. Toxicol. 77(6): 313-320, 2003.
  • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Parathion. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1788-1791.
Date Last Revised: 07/12/2004

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
  • sampling media: OSHA Versatile Sampler (OVS-2) - 13 mm XAD-2 tube (270/140 mg sections, 20/60 mesh) with Glass Fiber Filter enclosed
    analytical solvent: Toluene
    maximum volume: 480 Liters
    maximum flow rate: 1.0 L/min
    current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FPD
    method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA 62)
    method classification: Fully Validated
    note: OSHA personnel may obtain sampling tubes from the Salt Lake Technical Center.

Wipe Sampling Method:

  • sampling media: Glass Fiber Filter

Bulk Method:

  • Limit the amount of bulk submitted to one gram or one mL.