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Synonyms: Oxalic acid dihydrate; Ethanedioic acid
OSHA IMIS Code Number: 1970
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 144-62-7
NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: RO2450000
NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Oxalic Acid: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more
OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
General Industry: 29 CFR 1910.1000 Z-1 Table - 1 mg/m3 TWA
Construction Industry: 29 CFR 1926.55 Appendix A - 1 mg/m3 TWA
Maritime: 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards - 1 mg/m3 TWA
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 1 mg/m3 TWA; 2 mg/m3 STEL
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 1 mg/m3 TWA; 2 mg/m3 STEL
NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 500 mg/m3
Potential Symptoms: Eye, mucous membrane, skin irritation; eye burns; local pain; cyanosis (blue lips, fingernails, skin); shock, collapse, convulsions; kidney damage; pulmonary edema (may be delayed); INGES: Sore throat, burning sensation, abdominal pain, vomiting; diarrhea and bloody stools; drowsiness; numbness of fingers and toes.
Health Effects: Irritation-Eyes, Nose, Throat, Skin---Marked (HE14); Lung edema (HE11); Acute systemic effects (HE4)
Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system, kidneys
- Oxalic acid is a normal minor metabolite of carbohydrates (e.g., fructose), glycine, and vitamin C, but it is produced in toxic amounts after ethylene glycol intoxication.
- Kidney dialysis patients may be particularly susceptible to oxalate-induced nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity.
- Prolonged barbiturate sleeping time in rats treated with star fruit juice was attributed to its high oxalate content, indicating a possible inhibition of some drug-metabolizing cytochrome P-450s in the liver.
- Calcium oxalate crystals, which occur in certain plants, may cause irritant contact dermatitis in agricultural workers.
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Oxalic Acid.
- International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Oxalic acid.
- Chen, C.L., Chou, K.J., Wang, J.S., Yeh, J.H., Fang, H.C. and Chung, H.M.: Neurotoxic effects of carambola in rats: the role of oxalate. J. Formos. Med. Assoc. 101(5): 337-441, 2002.
- Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Oxalic Acid. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1763-1765.
- Rofe, A.M., James, H.M., Bais, R., Edwards, J.B. and Conyers, R.A.: The production of (14C) oxalate during the metabolism of (14C) carbohydrates in isolated rat hepatocytes. Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. 58(2): 103-116, 1980.
- Salinas, M.L., Ogura, T. and Soffchi, L.: Irritant contact dermatitis caused by needle-like calcium oxalate crystals, raphides, in Agave tequilana among workers in tequila distilleries and agave plantations. Contact Dermatitis 44(2): 94-96, 2001.
- Tse, K.C., et al.: Star fruit intoxication in uraemic patients: case series and review of the literature. Intern. Med. J. 33(7): 314-316, 2003.
Date Last Revised: 10/28/2004
Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):
sampling media: Mixed Cellulose Ester Filter (MCEF) 0.8 microns
maximum volume: 960 Liters
maximum flow rate: 2.0 L/min (TWA)
maximum volume: 30 Liters
maximum flow rate: 2.0 L/min (STEL)
current analytical method: Ion Chromatography; IC
method reference: 2 (OSHA In-House File)
method classification: Not Validated
note: Submit as a separate sample. If the filter is not overloaded, samples may be collected up to an 8-hour period. Within 1 hour after the sample has been collected, transfer the filter to a clean screw cap vial.
Wipe Sampling Method:
- sampling media: Whatman smear tab
analytical solvent: Deionized water
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