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Chemical Sampling Information (CSI)
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General Description

Synonyms: n-Nonane; Nonyl hydride

OSHA IMIS Code Number: N807

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 111-84-2

NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: RA6115000

Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Guide: 1920 128

NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Nonane: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

Exposure Limits

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 200 ppm, 1050 mg/m3 TWA

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 200 ppm, 1050 mg/m3 TWA

Health Factors

Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, nose, throat, skin; cough; headache, drowsiness, dizziness, confusion, nausea, tremor, incoordination; chemical pneumonitis (from aspiration of liquid); convulsions, unconsciousness; INGES ACUTE: Nausea, vomiting.

Health Effects: Irritation-Eye, Nose, Throat, Skin---Mild to severe (minimum HE16); Narcosis (HE8); Explosive, flammable (HE18)

Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system, CNS

Notes:

  1. OSHA does not have a PEL for nonane.
  2. Explosive vapor/air mixtures may be formed above 31°C.
  3. Nonane is a component of Stoddard solvent, gasoline (<0.3%) and jet fuels, e.g., JP-4 (~3.3%) and JP-8 (~1.1%).
  4. In vitro tissue partition studies with nonane indicate a very high uptake by fat compared with other tissues, with a fat:blood partition coefficient of 274.
  5. In vitro studies with human liver microsomes indicate metabolism of nonane to 2-nonanol by cytochrome P-450s (CYP) CYP1A2, CYP2B6 and CYP2E1 and subsequent metabolism of 2-nonanol to 2-nonanone by alcohol dehydrogenase, CYP2B6, and CYP2E1.
  6. Animal studies of irritation from nonane exposure to skin have reported mild effects in minipigs, or moderate irritation (with unoccluded multiple applications) or severe effects (with a single occluded 1-hr exposure) in hairless rats.

Literature Basis:

  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Nonane.
  • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Nonane.
  • Babu, R.J., Chatterjee, E., Ahaghotu, E. and Singh, M.: Percutaneous absorption and skin irritation upon low-level prolonged dermal exposure to nonane, dodecane and tetradecane in hairless rats. Toxicol. Ind. Health 20(6-10): 109-118, 2004.
  • Babu, R.J., Chatterjee, E. and Singh, M.: Assessment of skin irritation and molecular responses in rat skin exposed to nonane, dodecane and tetradecane. Toxicol. Lett. 153(2): 255-266, 2004.
  • Edwards, J.E., Rose, R.L. and Hodgson, E.: The metabolism of nonane, a JP-8 jet fuel component, by human liver microsomes, P450 isoforms and alcohol dehydrogenase and inhibition of human P450 isoforms by JP-8. Chem. Biol. Interact. 151(3): 203-211, 2005.
  • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Nonane. Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1749-1751.
  • Smith, A.Q., Campbell, J.L., Keys, D.A. and Fisher, J.W.: Rat tissue and blood partition coefficients for n-alkanes (C8-C12). Int. J. Toxicol. 24(1): 35-41, 2005.

Date Last Revised: 03/08/2006

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):

  • sampling media: Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
    analytical solvent: Carbon Disulfide
    maximum volume: 10 Liters
    maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min
    current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
    method reference: OSHA (In-House File)
    method classification: Partially Validated

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