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Synonyms: n-Nonane; Nonyl hydride
OSHA IMIS Code Number: N807
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 111-84-2
NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: RA6115000
Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Guide: 1920 128
NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Nonane: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 200 ppm, 1050 mg/m3 TWA
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 200 ppm, 1050 mg/m3 TWA
Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, nose, throat, skin; cough; headache, drowsiness, dizziness, confusion, nausea, tremor, incoordination; chemical pneumonitis (from aspiration of liquid); convulsions, unconsciousness; INGES ACUTE: Nausea, vomiting.
Health Effects: Irritation-Eye, Nose, Throat, Skin---Mild to severe (minimum HE16); Narcosis (HE8); Explosive, flammable (HE18)
Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system, CNS
- OSHA does not have a PEL for nonane.
- Explosive vapor/air mixtures may be formed above 31°C.
- Nonane is a component of Stoddard solvent, gasoline (<0.3%) and jet fuels, e.g., JP-4 (~3.3%) and JP-8 (~1.1%).
- In vitro tissue partition studies with nonane indicate a very high uptake by fat compared with other tissues, with a fat:blood partition coefficient of 274.
- In vitro studies with human liver microsomes indicate metabolism of nonane to 2-nonanol by cytochrome P-450s (CYP) CYP1A2, CYP2B6 and CYP2E1 and subsequent metabolism of 2-nonanol to 2-nonanone by alcohol dehydrogenase, CYP2B6, and CYP2E1.
- Animal studies of irritation from nonane exposure to skin have reported mild effects in minipigs, or moderate irritation (with unoccluded multiple applications) or severe effects (with a single occluded 1-hr exposure) in hairless rats.
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Nonane.
- International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Nonane.
- Babu, R.J., Chatterjee, E., Ahaghotu, E. and Singh, M.: Percutaneous absorption and skin irritation upon low-level prolonged dermal exposure to nonane, dodecane and tetradecane in hairless rats. Toxicol. Ind. Health 20(6-10): 109-118, 2004.
- Babu, R.J., Chatterjee, E. and Singh, M.: Assessment of skin irritation and molecular responses in rat skin exposed to nonane, dodecane and tetradecane. Toxicol. Lett. 153(2): 255-266, 2004.
- Edwards, J.E., Rose, R.L. and Hodgson, E.: The metabolism of nonane, a JP-8 jet fuel component, by human liver microsomes, P450 isoforms and alcohol dehydrogenase and inhibition of human P450 isoforms by JP-8. Chem. Biol. Interact. 151(3): 203-211, 2005.
- Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Nonane. Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1749-1751.
- Smith, A.Q., Campbell, J.L., Keys, D.A. and Fisher, J.W.: Rat tissue and blood partition coefficients for n-alkanes (C8-C12). Int. J. Toxicol. 24(1): 35-41, 2005.
Date Last Revised: 03/08/2006
Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):
- sampling media: Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
analytical solvent: Carbon Disulfide
maximum volume: 10 Liters
maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min
current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
method reference: OSHA (In-House File)
method classification: Partially Validated
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