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N-Nitrosopiperidine

General Description

  • Synonyms: NPIP; NO-Pip; 1-Nitrosopiperidine
  • OSHA IMIS Code Number: 1949
  • Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 100-75-4
  • NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: TN2100000
  • Chemical Description and Physical Properties:
    • yellow liquid
    • molecular formula: C5H10N2O
    • molecular weight: 114.15
    • boiling point: 217°C/721 mm Hg

Health Factors

  • Carcinogenic Classification:
  • Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, inflammation of pigmented area, clouded patches of vision from corneal damage; liver damage
  • Health Effects: Suspected carcinogen (HE2); Possible permanent damage to eyes (HE14)
  • Affected Organs: Eyes; in rats: esophagus, liver, nasal cavity, stomach
  • Notes:
    1. N-Nitrosopiperidine is an OSHA Select Carcinogen without a PEL, and it appears to be used only as a research chemical.
    2. It is thought to undergo activation by α-hydroxylation via the cytochrome P450 2A family (e.g., CYP2A6) to metabolites that form adducts with guanine in DNA, which may be involved in carcinogenesis.
    3. N-Nitrosopiperidine has been found in some sun-dried foods, smoked fish, meats (e.g., bacon) and other foods preserved with sodium nitrite.
    4. N-Nitrosopiperidine was detected in urine from 52/59 non-smokers who were tested, and it appeared to be associated with the consumption of coffee, according to one report.
  • Literature Basis:
    • No Author: Nitrosamines, 15 Listings (PDF). Report on Carcinogens (latest edition); U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
    • Levallois, P., et al.: Excretion of volatile nitrosamines in a rural population in relation to food and drinking water consumption. Food Chem. Toxicol. 38(11): 1013-1019, (2000).
    • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): N-Nitrosopiperidine. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, (2002), pp. 1741-1742.
    • Siddiqi, M.A., Tricker, A.R., Kumar, R., Fazili, Z. and Preussmann, R.: Dietary sources of N-nitrosamines in a high-risk area for oesophageal cancer-Kashmir, India. IARC Sci. Publ. (105): 210-213, (1991).
    • Wong, H.L., Murphy, S.E. and Hecht, S.S.: Cytochrome P450 2A-catalyzed metabolic activation of structurally similar carcinogenic nitrosamines: N'-nitrosonornicotine enantiomers, N-nitrosopiperidine, and N-nitrosopyrrolidine. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 18(1): 61-69, (2005).
  • Date Last Revised: 08/16/2006

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):
  • ThermoSorb/N Tube
  • maximum volume: 75 Liters
  • maximum flow rate: 1.0 L/min
  • current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/TEA
  • analytical solvent: (75:25) Dichloromethane:Methanol
  • method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA 27)
  • method classification: Fully Validated
  • note: OSHA personnel may obtain ThermoSorb/N Tube from the Salt Lake Technical Center (SLTC). Store samples in freezer.
Bulk Method:
  • Limit the amount of bulk submitted to one gram or one mL.

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