Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, skin; in animals: liver damage; [potential occupational carcinogen]
Health Effects: Animal carcinogen (liver, lung, esophagus, nasal/paranasal) (HE2)
Affected Organs: Liver (rats); lungs (mice)
N-Nitrosomorpholine is an OSHA Select Carcinogen. OSHA does not have a PEL for this chemical.
Activation of N-nitrosomorpholine to a mutagenic metabolite in Salmonella was reported to be catalyzed by cytochrome P450 2A6 (major) and P450 2E1 (minor).
Occupational exposure to this chemical occurs primarily in the rubber industry.
However, an increase in the urinary excretion of N-nitrosomorpholine can be caused by consumption of food rich in nitrate and amines.
No Author: N-Nitrosomorpholine (PDF). Report on Carcinogens (latest edition); U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
Fujita, K. and Kamataki, T.: Predicting the mutagenicity of tobacco-related N-nitrosamines in humans using 11 strains of Salmonella typhimurium YG7108, each coexpressing a form of human cytochrome P450 along with NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. Environ. Mol. Mutagen.38(4): 339-346, (2001).
Hecht, S.S., Lijinsky, W., Kovatch, R.M., Chung, F.L. and Saavedra, J.E.: Comparative tumorigenicity of N-nitroso-2-hydroxymorpholine, N-nitrosodiethanolamine and N-nitrosomorpholine in A/J/ mice and F344 rats. Carcinogenesis10(8): 1475-1477, (1989).
Monarca, S., et al.: Monitoring airborne genotoxicants in the rubber industry using genotoxicity tests and chemical analyses. Mutat. Res.490(2): 159-169, (2001).
van Maanen, J.M., Pachen, D.M., Dallinga, J.W. and Kleinjans, J.C.: Formation of nitrosamines during consumption of nitrate- and amine-rich foods, and the influence of the use of mouthwashes. Cancer Detect. Prev.22(3): 204-212, (1998).
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