- Synonyms: NDMA; DMNA; DMN; Dimethylnitrosamine; N,N-Dimethyl- nitrosamine; N-Methyl-N-nitrosomethanamine; N-Nitroso-N,N-dimethylamine
- OSHA IMIS Code Number: 1942
- Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 62-75-9
- NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: IQ0525000
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, N-Nitrosodimethylamine: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more
- OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
- General Industry: 29 CFR 1910.1016 requirements identical to 29 CFR 1910.1003 -- 13 Carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.) -- Cancer-Suspect Agent
- Construction Industry: 29 CFR 1926.1116 requirements identical to 29 CFR 1910.1003 -- 13 Carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.) -- Cancer-Suspect Agent
- Maritime: 29 CFR 1915.1016 requirements identical to 29 CFR 1910.1003 -- 13 Carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.) -- Cancer-Suspect Agent
- American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) (1992): Exposure by all routes should be carefully controlled to levels as low as possible; Skin; A3
- National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): Appendix A - NIOSH Potential Occupational
- Carcinogenic Classification:
- Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, skin, respiratory tract; nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps; headache; sore throat, cough; weakness; fever; enlarged liver, jaundice; decreased liver, kidney, and pulmonary function; low platelet count; [potential occupational carcinogen]
- Health Effects: Cancer (HE1); Liver cirrhosis (HE3); Suspect teratogen (HE5)
- Affected Organs: Liver, kidneys, lungs
- N-Nitrosodimethylamine is an OSHA Regulated Carcinogen without a PEL (29 CFR 1910.1003).
- It undergoes activation by cytochrome P450 2E1 to reactive metabolites that result in the chemical modification of DNA and consequent apoptotic cell death.
- The main chemical modification of DNA involves the methylation of guanine residues to form N7-methylguanine (major adduct) and O6-methylguanine, which are thought to be involved in the mutagenicity of N-nitrosodimethylamine.
- In addition to worker exposure in the rubber industry and wide exposure to users of tobacco products, recent research has focused on the formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine during water disinfection using chlorination or chloramination processes.
- In April 1998, the California Department of Health Services established an "action level" (now termed notification level) for N-nitrosodimethylamine of 10 nanograms per liter of drinking water.
- Biological monitoring of worker exposure may be facilitated by the recent development of a sensitive ELISA assay for DNA adducts in peripheral blood lymphocytes.
- Literature Basis:
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: N-Nitrosodimethylamine.
- International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): N-Nitrosodimethylamine.
- EPA Air Toxics Website: N-Nitrosodimethylamine. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network.
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR): Toxicological Profile for N-nitrosodimethylamine. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1989.
- California Department of Health Services: NDMA and Other Nitrosamines - Drinking Water Issues.
- Choi, J. and Valentine, R.L.: Formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) from reaction of monochloramine: a new disinfection by-product. Water Res. 36(4): 817,824, 2002.
- Lin, H.L., Parsels, L.A., Maybaum, J. and Hollenberg, P.F.: N-Nitrosodimethylamine-mediated cytotoxicity in a cell line expressing P450 2E1: evidence for apoptic cell death. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 157(2): 117-124, 1999.
- Mitch, W.A., Gerecke, A.C. and Sedlak, D.L.: A N-nitrosodimethylamine precursor analysis for chlorination of water and wastewater. Water Res. 37(15): 3733-3741, 2003.
- Niot-Mansart, V., Muhamedi, A. and Arnould, J.P.: A competitive ELISA detecting 7-methylguanosine adduct induced by N-nitrosodimethylamine exposure. Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 24(2): 89-94, 2005.
- No Author: Nitrosamines, 15 Listings. Report on Carcinogens (latest edition); U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
- Oury, B., Limasset, J.C. and Protois, J.C.: Assessment of exposure to carcinogenic N-nitrosamines in the rubber industry. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 70(4): 261-271, 1997.
- Pohanish, R.P. (editor): N-Nitrosodimethylamine. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1731-1733.
- Siddiqui, M. and Atasi, K.Z.: N-Nitrosodimethylamine: a disinfectant byproduct and its occurrence in wastewater. Water Environ. Res. 76(4): 316-326, 2004.
- Straif, K., et al.: Exposure to high concentrations of nitrosamines and cancer mortality among a cohort of rubber workers. Occup. Environ. Med. 57(3): 180-187, 2000.
- Date Last Revised: 11/10/2005
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA
Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):
- ThermoSorb/N Tube
- maximum volume: 75 Liters
- maximum flow rate: 1.0 L/min
- current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/TEA
- analytical solvent: (75:25) Dichloromethane:Methanol
- method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA 27)
- method classification: Fully Validated
- note: OSHA personnel may obtain ThermoSorb/N Tube from the Salt Lake Technical Center (SLTC). Store sample in freezer.
- Limit the amount of bulk submitted to one gram or one mL.
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