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Chemical Sampling Information (CSI)
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General Description

Synonyms: 4-Hydroxynitrobenzene; 4-Nitrophenol

OSHA IMIS Code Number: N607

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 100-02-7

NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: SM2275000

Chemical Description and Physical Properties:

colorless to pale yellow crystals
molecular weight: 139.12
vapor pressure: 0.0032 Pa @ 20°C
molecular formula: C6H5NO3
boiling point: 279°C
melting point: 111-116°C
flash point: 169°C

Incompatibilities: Mixtures with potassium hydroxide are explosive.

Health Factors

Potential Symptoms: Eye, skin and respiratory tract irritation; yellow staining of skin; methemoglobinemia (blue lips, fingernails, ears); headache; nausea; cough, sore throat; bronchitis; dizziness, weakness, confusion, convulsions, unconsciousness; INGES. ACUTE: Abdominal pain, sore throat, vomiting

Health Effects: Irritation-Eyes, Nose, Throat, Skin---Marked (HE14); Methemoglobinema (HE13)

Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system, blood

Notes:

  1. OSHA does not have a PEL for p-nitrophenol.
  2. p-Nitrophenol has been used as a model substrate for cytochrome P450 2E1, although the major urinary metabolite is its glucuronide conjugate.
  3. p-Nitrophenol is both a breakdown product and a metabolite of parathion and its derivatives. Its measurement in urine is used as one of the markers for exposure to these pesticides, as well as to p-nitrophenol itself, which can be absorbed through the skin.

Literature Basis:

  • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): p-Nitrophenol.
  • EPA Air Toxics Website: 4-Nitrophenol. US Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network.
  • Barr, D.B., et al.: Measurement of p-nitrophenol in the urine of residents whose homes were contaminated with methyl parathion. Environ. Health Perspect. 110(Suppl. 6): 1085-1091, 2002.
  • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Nitrophenols. Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1722-1725.
  • Qiao, G.L., Chang, S.K., Brooks, J.D. and Riviere, J.E.: Dermatotoxicokinetic modeling of p-nitrophenol and its conjugation metabolite in swine following topical and intravenous administration. Toxicol. Sci. 54(2): 284-294, 2000.

Date Last Revised: 08/24/2005

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):

  • sampling media:: Midget Impinger (MI) containing 10 mL of 0.1N NaOH
    maximum volume: 100 Liters
    maximum flow rate: 1.0 L/min
    current analytical method: High Performance Liquid Chromatography; HPLC/UV
    method reference: OSHA (In-House File)
    method classification: Not Validated

Conditions: Column: C18; Mobile Phase: 50:50:0.1 Methanol: Water: H3PO4; Detector Wavelength: 254 or 280nm; Detection Limit: 0.003 mg/m3

Wipe Sampling Method:

  • sampling media: Whatman 41 Filter Paper

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