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p-Nitrophenol

General Description

  • Synonyms: 4-Hydroxynitrobenzene; 4-Nitrophenol
  • OSHA IMIS Code Number: N607
  • Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 100-02-7
  • NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: SM2275000
  • Chemical Description and Physical Properties:
    • colorless to pale yellow crystals
    • molecular weight: 139.12
    • vapor pressure: 0.0032 Pa @ 20°C
    • molecular formula: C6H5NO3
    • boiling point: 279°C
    • melting point: 111-116°C
    • flash point: 169°C

  • Incompatibilities: Mixtures with potassium hydroxide are explosive.

Health Factors

  • Potential Symptoms: Eye, skin and respiratory tract irritation; yellow staining of skin; methemoglobinemia (blue lips, fingernails, ears); headache; nausea; cough, sore throat; bronchitis; dizziness, weakness, confusion, convulsions, unconsciousness; INGES. ACUTE: Abdominal pain, sore throat, vomiting
  • Health Effects: Irritation-Eyes, Nose, Throat, Skin---Marked (HE14); Methemoglobinema (HE13)
  • Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system, blood
  • Notes:
    1. OSHA does not have a PEL for p-nitrophenol.
    2. p-Nitrophenol has been used as a model substrate for cytochrome P450 2E1, although the major urinary metabolite is its glucuronide conjugate.
    3. p-Nitrophenol is both a breakdown product and a metabolite of parathion and its derivatives. Its measurement in urine is used as one of the markers for exposure to these pesticides, as well as to p-nitrophenol itself, which can be absorbed through the skin.
  • Literature Basis:
    • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): p-Nitrophenol.
    • EPA Air Toxics Website: 4-Nitrophenol. US Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network.
    • Barr, D.B., et al.: Measurement of p-nitrophenol in the urine of residents whose homes were contaminated with methyl parathion. Environ. Health Perspect. 110(Suppl. 6): 1085-1091, 2002.
    • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Nitrophenols. Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1722-1725.
    • Qiao, G.L., Chang, S.K., Brooks, J.D. and Riviere, J.E.: Dermatotoxicokinetic modeling of p-nitrophenol and its conjugation metabolite in swine following topical and intravenous administration. Toxicol. Sci. 54(2): 284-294, 2000.
  • Date Last Revised: 08/24/2005

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):
  • Midget Impinger (MI) containing 10 mL of 0.1N NaOH
  • maximum volume: 100 Liters
  • maximum flow rate: 1.0 L/min
  • current analytical method: High Performance Liquid Chromatography; HPLC/UV
  • method reference: OSHA (In-House File)
  • method classification: Not Validated
Wipe Sampling Method:
  • Whatman 41 Filter Paper
Conditions:

Column: C18; Mobile Phase: 50:50:0.1 Methanol: Water: H3PO4; Detector Wavelength: 254 or 280nm; Detection Limit: 0.003 mg/m3

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