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Chemical Sampling Information (CSI)
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General Description

Synonyms: DACPM; 3,3'-Dichloro-4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane; MBOCA; 4,4'-Methylenebis(o-chloro aniline); 4,4'-Methylenebis(2-chlorobenzenamine); MOCA

OSHA IMIS Code Number: 2650

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 101-14-4

NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: CY1050000

NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, 4,4'-Methylenebis(2-Chloroaniline): chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

Exposure Limits

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 0.01 ppm, 0.11 mg/m3 TWA; Skin; Appendix A2 - Suspected Human Carcinogen; BEI

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 0.003 mg/m3 TWA; Skin; Appendix A - NIOSH Potential Occupational Carcinogens

Health Factors

Carcinogenic Classification:
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Group 2A, probably carcinogenic to humans [104 KB PDF, 43 pages]

National Toxicology Program (NTP): Reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogen [167 KB PDF, 2 pages]
Potential Symptoms: Hematuria (blood in the urine), cyanosis, nausea, methemoglobinemia, headache, dizziness, confusion, convulsions; kidney irritation; [potential occupational carcinogen]

Health Effects: Carcinogen (HE1); Mutagen (HE2); Methemoglobinemia (HE13)

Affected Organs: Blood, liver, kidneys

  1. 4,4’-Methylene-bis(2-chloroaniline) (MBOCA) is an OSHA Select Carcinogen without a PEL.
  2. It may be absorbed through the skin and cause a burning sensation.
  3. It has been suggested that measuring urinary MBOCA, perhaps after hydrolysis of a glucuronide conjugate, is a better index of exposure than monitoring airborne MBOCA because of significant skin absorption.
  4. A case of bladder cancer was diagnosed in an employee exposed 14 years during the manufacture of this chemical. Air samples taken two consecutive days in his work area indicated MBOCA concentrations of 0.23 and 0.41 mg/m3.
  5. N-hydroxy- and mononitroso-derivatives of MBOCA, but not MBOCA itself, were reported to produce adducts with rat and human hemoglobin in vitro.
Date Last Revised: 09/01/2006

Literature Basis:
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: 4,4'-Methylenebis(2-Chloroaniline).
  • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): 4,4'-Methylene bis(2-Chloroaniline).
  • Chen, T.H., Kuslikis, B.I. and Braselton, W.E., Jr.: Unlabeled hemoglobin adducts of 4,4';-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) in rats and guinea pigs. Arch. Toxicol. 65(3): 177-185, 1991.
  • Cocker, J., Boobie, A.R., Wilson, H.K. and Gompertz, D.: Evidence that a beta-N-glucuronide of 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) (MbOCA) is a major urinary metabolite in man: implications for biological monitoring. Br. J. Ind. Med. 47(3): 154-161, 1990.
  • Ichikawa, Y., Yoshida, M., Okayama, A., Hara, I. and Morimoto, K.: Biological monitoring for workers exposed to 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline). Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 51(1): 5-7, 1990.
  • Liu, C.-S., et al.: Occupational bladder cancer in a 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) (MBOCA)-exposed worker. Environ. Health Perspec. 113(6): 771-774, 2005.
  • No Author: 4,4'-Methylenebis(2-Chloroaniline) (CAS No. 101-14-4) [167 KB PDF, 2 pages]. Report on Carcinogens (latest edition); U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program, 2011.
  • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): 4,4'-Methylenebis(2-Chloroaniline). In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1553-1556.
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
  • sampling media: Coated Glass Fiber Filters (37 mm) in 3 piece cassette. Coating is Sulfuric Acid.
    maximum volume: 100 Liters
    maximum flow rate: 1.0 L/min
    current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/ECD
    method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA 71)
    method classification: Fully Validated
    note: Within ten hours after sampling, transfer filter to glass vial containing 2 mL deionized water. Filters may be obtained by OSHA personnel from SLTC.

Wipe Sampling Method:

  • sampling media: Glass Fiber Filter
    note: Place the wipe sample into a glass vial containing 2 mL of 0.01 N Sulfuric Acid.
Bulk Method: Limit the amount of bulk submitted to one gram or one mL.

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Page last updated: 09/24/2007

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