Potential Symptoms: Hematuria (blood in the urine), cyanosis, nausea, methemoglobinemia, headache, dizziness, confusion, convulsions; kidney irritation; [potential occupational carcinogen]
Health Effects: Carcinogen (HE1); Mutagen (HE2); Methemoglobinemia (HE13)
Affected Organs: Blood, liver, kidneys
4,4'-Methylene-bis(2-chloroaniline) (MBOCA) is an OSHA Select Carcinogen without a PEL.
It may be absorbed through the skin and cause a burning sensation.
It has been suggested that measuring urinary MBOCA, perhaps after hydrolysis of a glucuronide conjugate, is a better index of exposure than monitoring airborne MBOCA because of significant skin absorption.
A case of bladder cancer was diagnosed in an employee exposed 14 years during the manufacture of this chemical. Air samples taken two consecutive days in his work area indicated MBOCA concentrations of 0.23 and 0.41 mg/m3.
N-hydroxy- and mononitroso-derivatives of MBOCA, but not MBOCA itself, were reported to produce adducts with rat and human hemoglobin in vitro.
Chen, T.H., Kuslikis, B.I. and Braselton, W.E., Jr.: Unlabeled hemoglobin adducts of 4,4';-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) in rats and guinea pigs. Arch. Toxicol. 65(3): 177-185, 1991.
Cocker, J., Boobie, A.R., Wilson, H.K. and Gompertz, D.: Evidence that a beta-N-glucuronide of 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) (MbOCA) is a major urinary metabolite in man: implications for biological monitoring. Br. J. Ind. Med. 47(3): 154-161, 1990.
Ichikawa, Y., Yoshida, M., Okayama, A., Hara, I. and Morimoto, K.: Biological monitoring for workers exposed to 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline). Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 51(1): 5-7, 1990.
Liu, C.-S., et al.: Occupational bladder cancer in a 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) (MBOCA)-exposed worker. Environ. Health Perspec. 113(6): 771-774, 2005.
No Author: 4,4'-Methylenebis(2-Chloroaniline) (PDF) (CAS No. 101-14-4). Report on Carcinogens (latest edition); U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program, 2011.
Pohanish, R.P. (editor): 4,4'-Methylenebis(2-Chloroaniline). In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1553-1556.
Date Last Revised: 09/01/2006
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA
Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method
Coated Glass Fiber Filters (37 mm) in 3 piece cassette. Coating is Sulfuric Acid.
maximum volume: 100 Liters
maximum flow rate: 1.0 L/min
current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/ECD
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