- Synonyms: Chlorothene; 1,1,1-Trichloroethane; 1,1,1-Trichloroethane (stabilized); Composite Constituent
- OSHA IMIS Code Number: 1720
- Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 71-55-6
- NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: KJ2975000
- Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Emergency Response Guidebook: 2831 160
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Methyl chloroform: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more
- OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
- American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) (1992): 350 ppm (1910 mg/m3) TWA; 450 ppm (2460 mg/m3) STEL; A4; BEI
- National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 350 ppm (1900 mg/m3) Ceiling (15 Minutes); Appendix C - Supplementary Exposure Limits (chloroethanes)
- Carcinogenic Classification:
- International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Group 3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (1,1,1-Trichloroethane)
- NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 700 ppm
- Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, skin; headache; lassitude; CNS depression (dizziness, drowsiness, unconsciousness); poor equilibrium, ataxia; dry skin, dermatitis; cardiac arrhythmias; hypotension; liver damage. INGES ACUTE: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.
- Health Effects: Irritation - Eye, Nose, Throat, Skin---Mild (HE 16) Narcosis (HE 8); Hepatotoxicity (HE3).
- Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, CNS, cardiovascular system, liver
- A few cases of peripheral sensory neuropathy following use of this chemical as a degreasing agent without adequate hand protection have been reported.
- Although some of this chemical is metabolized to trichloroethanol and trichloroacetic acid, which are excreted in the urine, most is excreted unchanged in exhaled air, which appears to be more suitable for monitoring exposure than measurement of urinary metabolites.
- Date Last Revised: 06/14/2004
- Literature Basis:
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Methyl chloroform.
- International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): 1,1,1-Trichloroethane.
- EPA Air Toxics Website: Methyl chloroform (1,1,1-Trichloroethane). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network.
- Cohen, C. and Frank, A.L.: Liver disease following occupational exposure to 1,1,1-trichloroethane: A case study. Am. J. Ind. Med. 26(2):237-241, 1994.
- House, R.A., Liss, G.M., Wills, M.C. and Holness, D.L.: Paresthesias and sensory neuropathy due to 1,1,1-trichloroethane. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 38(2): 123-124, 1996.
- Pohanish, R.P. (editor): 1,1,1-Trichloroethane. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 2245-2248.
- Tay, P., Pinnagoda, J., Sam, C.T., Ho, S.F., Tan, K.T. and Ong, C.N.: Environmental and biological monitoring of occupational exposure to 1,1,1-trichloroethane. Occup. Med. (Lond.) 45(3): 147-150, 1995.
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA
Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):
- Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
- analytical solvent: Carbon Disulfide
- alternate analytical solvent: (99:1) Carbon Disulfide:Dimethylformamide
- maximum volume: 3 Liters
- maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min (TWA)
- maximum volume: 3 Liters
- maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min (STEL)
- current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
- method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA 14)
- method classification: Fully Validated
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