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Chemical Sampling Information (CSI)
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General Description

Synonyms: Chlorothene; 1,1,1-Trichloroethane; 1,1,1-Trichloroethane (stabilized); Composite Constituent

OSHA IMIS Code Number: 1720

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 71-55-6

NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: KJ2975000

Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Guide: 2831 160

NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Methyl chloroform: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

Exposure Limits

OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):

General Industry: 29 CFR 1910.1000 Z-1 Table -- 350 ppm, 1900 mg/m3 TWA

Construction Industry: 29 CFR 1926.55 Appendix A -- 350 ppm, 1900 mg/m3 TWA

Maritime: 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards -- 350 ppm, 1900 mg/m3 TWA

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 350 ppm, 1910 mg/m3 TWA; 450 ppm, 2460 mg/m3 STEL; Appendix A4 - Not Classifiable as a Human Carcinogen

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 350 ppm, 1900 mg/m3 Ceiling (15 Minutes); Appendix C - Supplementary Exposure Limits (chloroethanes)

Health Factors

Carcinogenic Classification:

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Group 3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (1,1,1-Trichloroethane)

NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 700 ppm

Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, skin; headache; lassitude; CNS depression (dizziness, drowsiness, unconsciousness); poor equilibrium, ataxia; dry skin, dermatitis; cardiac arrhythmias; hypotension; liver damage. INGES ACUTE: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.

Health Effects: Irritation - Eye, Nose, Throat, Skin---Mild (HE 16) Narcosis (HE 8); Hepatotoxicity (HE3).

Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, CNS, cardiovascular system, liver

Notes:

  1. A few cases of peripheral sensory neuropathy following use of this chemical as a degreasing agent without adequate hand protection have been reported.
  2. Although some of this chemical is metabolized to trichloroethanol and trichloroacetic acid, which are excreted in the urine, most is excreted unchanged in exhaled air, which appears to be more suitable for monitoring exposure than measurement of urinary metabolites.

Date Last Revised: 06/14/2004

Literature Basis:

  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Methyl chloroform.
  • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): 1,1,1-Trichloroethane.
  • EPA Air Toxics Website: Methyl chloroform (1,1,1-Trichloroethane). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network.
  • Cohen, C. and Frank, A.L.: Liver disease following occupational exposure to 1,1,1-trichloroethane: A case study. Am. J. Ind. Med. 26(2):237-241, 1994.
  • House, R.A., Liss, G.M., Wills, M.C. and Holness, D.L.: Paresthesias and sensory neuropathy due to 1,1,1-trichloroethane. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 38(2): 123-124, 1996.
  • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): 1,1,1-Trichloroethane. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 2245-2248.
  • Tay, P., Pinnagoda, J., Sam, C.T., Ho, S.F., Tan, K.T. and Ong, C.N.: Environmental and biological monitoring of occupational exposure to 1,1,1-trichloroethane. Occup. Med. (Lond.) 45(3): 147-150, 1995.
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):

  • sampling media: Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
    analytical solvent: Carbon Disulfide
    alternate analytical solvent: (99:1) Carbon Disulfide:Dimethylformamide
    maximum volume: 3 Liters
    maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min (TWA)
    maximum volume: 3 Liters
    maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min (STEL)
    current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
    method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA 14)
    method classification: Fully Validated