<< Back to Chemical Sampling Information

Chemical Sampling Information (CSI)
Search (use word(s)/phrase)
Table of Contents
By Name
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

By CAS Number
Quick Links

General Description

Synonyms: 1-Chloro-2,2,2-Trifluoroethyl Difluoromethyl Ether; 2-Chloro-2-(Difluoromethoxy)-1,1,1-trifluoro Ethane; Forane

OSHA IMIS Code Number: F118

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 26675-46-7

NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: KN6799000

Chemical Description and Physical Properties:

colorless liquid
molecular weight: 184.50
vapor pressure: 32 kPa @ 20°C
molecular formula: C3H2ClF5O
boiling point: 48.5°C

Health Factors

Carcinogenic Classification:

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Anesthetics, volatile - Group 3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans [1 MB PDF, 454 pages]

Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, skin, respiratory tract; cough, sore throat; headache, drowsiness, dizziness; asphyxia; unconsciousness

Health Effects: Narcosis (HE8); Asphyxiant (HE17)

Affected Organs: CNS

Notes:

  1. OSHA does not have a PEL for isoflurane.
  2. Isoflurane is used as a general anesthetic by inhalation. Its minimum alveolar concentration (MAC, a special type of ED50) is approximately 1.15%. Significant subjective effects and significant deficits in psychomotor tests occurred in volunteers (n=14) at a concentration of 0.2%.
  3. A comparison of the irritating effects (coughing, burning sensation, tolerability) of isoflurane, desflurane, and sevoflurane (n=27 male patients per anesthetic) at concentrations of 2 MAC for a one-minute exposure indicated that 2.3% isoflurane is more irritating than 4% sevoflurane and less irritating than 12% desflurane.
  4. Studies with patients undergoing anesthesia indicated that a small amount of isoflurane (approximately 0.2% of what is systemically absorbed) is metabolized to trifluoroacetic acid and inorganic fluoride by cytochrome P450 2E1 and that this metabolism is inhibited by disulfiram.
  5. Tissue levels of isoflurane have been measured in two fatal cases involving isoflurane abuse.
  6. Measurement of urinary isoflurane has been suggested as a suitable means for biomonitoring exposure in operating room personnel.

Literature Basis:

  • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Isoflurane.
  • Accorsi, A., Barbieri, A., Raffi, G.B. and Violante, F.S.: Biomonitoring of exposure to nitrous oxide, sevoflurane, isoflurane and halothane by automated GC/MS headspace urinalysis. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 74(8): 541-548, 2001.
  • Beckman, N.J., Zacny, J.P. and Walker, D.J.: Within-subject comparison of the subjective and psychomotor effects of a gaseous anesthetic and two volatile anesthetics in health volunteers. Drug Alcohol Depend. 81(1): 89-95, 2006.
  • Kharasch, E.D., Hankins, D.C. and Cox, K.: Clinical isoflurane metabolism by cytochrome P450 2E1. Anesthesiology 90(3): 766-771, 1999.
  • Kuhlman, J.J., Jr., Magluilo, J., Jr., Levine, B. and Smith, M.L.: Two deaths involving isoflurane abuse. J. Forensic Sci. 38(4): 968-971, 1993.
  • Stachnik, J.: Inhaled anesthetic agents. Am. J. Health Syst. Pharm. 63(7): 623-634, 2006.
  • TerRiet, M.F., et al.: Which is most pungent: isoflurane, sevoflurane or desflurane? Br. J. Anaesth. 85(2): 305-307, 2000.

Date Last Revised: 06/13/2006

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):

  • sampling media: Anasorb 747 Tube (140/70 mg sections)
    analytical solvent: Carbon Disulfide
    maximum volume: 12 Liters
    maximum flow rate: 0.05 L/min
    current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
    method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA 103)
    method classification: Fully Validated

  • sampling media: Anasorb CMS Tube (150/75 mg sections)
    analytical solvent: Carbon Disulfide
    maximum volume: 12 Liters
    maximum flow rate: 0.05 L/min
    current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
    method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA 103)
    method classification: Fully Validated

** All Trademarks are the property of their respective owners.


Accessibility Assistance: Contact the OSHA Directorate of Technical Support and Emergency Management at (202) 693-2300 for assistance accessing PDF materials.