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Chemical Sampling Information (CSI)
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General Description

Synonyms: 2-Methylpropane

OSHA IMIS Code Number: K105

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 75-28-5

NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: TZ4300000

Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Guide: 1075 115; 1969 115

NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Isobutane: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

Exposure Limits

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 800 ppm, 1900 mg/m3 TWA

Health Factors

Potential Symptoms: Drowsiness, narcosis, shortness of breath; asphyxia; frostbite from contact with liquid

Health Effects: Asphyxiant (HE17); Narcosis (HE8); Acute toxicity---sudden death (ventricular fibrillation) (HE4)

Affected Organs: CNS

Notes:

  1. OSHA does not have a PEL for isobutane, which is affirmed as "generally recognized as safe" as a direct human food ingredient (21 CFR 184.1165). No toxic effects reported below 18,000 ppm.
  2. Gas/air mixtures are explosive.
  3. Metabolized in the body to tert-butyl alcohol.

Literature Basis:

  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Isobutane.
  • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Isobutane.
  • Fuke, C., et al.: A fatal case considered to be due to cardiac arrhythmia associated with butane inhalation. Leg. Med. (Tokyo) 4(2): 134-138, 2002.
  • Galvin, J.B. and Bond, G.: Isobutane CAS# 75-28-5. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, Part A 58(1-2): 3-22, 1999.
  • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Butanes. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 386-388.
  • Rohrig, T.P.: Sudden death due to butane inhalation. Am. J. Forensic Med. Pathol. 18(3): 299-302, 1997.
  • Tsukamoto, S., Chiba, S., Muto, T., Ishikawa, T. and Shimamura, M.: Study on the metabolism of volatile hydrocarbons in mice-propane, n-butane, and iso-butane. J. Toxicol. Sci. 10(4): 323-332, 1985.

Date Last Revised: 02/18/2004

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

On-Site Sampling Techniques/Methods:

  • device: Detector Tube
    manufacturer: AUER/MSA
    model/type: Propane-200, MSA P/N 804418, AUER P/N 5086-831
    sampling information: follow manufacturer's instructions
    upper measurement limit: 4200 ppm
    detection limit: approximately 100 ppm
    overall uncertainty: unknown
    method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)

  • device: Detector Tube
    manufacturer: Gastec
    model/type: 103
    sampling information: 0.5 to 3 strokes
    upper measurement limit: 1.7%
    detection limit: approximately 0.02%
    overall uncertainty: 16%
    method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)

  • device: Detector Tube
    manufacturer: Gastec
    model/type: 104
    sampling information: 1 stroke
    upper measurement limit: 3080 ppm
    detection limit: approximately 10 ppm
    overall uncertainty: 16%
    method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)

  • device: Detector Tube
    manufacturer: Matheson-Kitagawa
    model/type: 8014-113SB
    sampling information: 1 stroke
    upper measurement limit: 1200 ppm
    detection limit: approximately 25 ppm
    overall uncertainty: unknown
    method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)

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