<< Back to Chemical Sampling Information
OSHA IMIS Code Number: R292
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 7803-49-8
NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: NC2975000
Chemical Description and Physical Properties:
very hygroscopic white needles or flakes
molecular weight: 33.04
vapor pressure: 1.3 kPa at 47°C
molecular formula: H3NO
boiling point: decomposes below <70°C
melting point: 33°C
flash point: explodes at 129°C
Incompatibilities: Reacts violently with oxidants, metals such as finely divided zinc, some metal oxides, copper(II)sulfate and phosphorus chlorides causing fire and exposion hazard
Potential Symptoms: Cough, sore throat; headache, dizziness, weakness; blue lips, fingernails or skin; eye redness, pain, burns; tinnitus; INGES ACUTE: nausea, vomiting; shortness of breath
Health Effects: Irritation-Eye, Nose, Throat, Skin---Marked (HE14); Methemoglobinemia (HE13); Hemolytic anemia (HE12); Narcosis (HE8)
Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system, blood, CNS
- OSHA does not have a PEL for hydroxylamine.
- Some of the effects of hydroxylamine (e.g., lowering blood pressure) may be mediated by its conversion in the body to nitric oxide.
- Doses of hydroxylamine hydrochloride, 5 mg/kg intravenously or 50 mg/kg intramuscularly, were reported to protect beagle dogs from a lethal intravenous dose of sodium cyanide (2.5 mg/kg), due to the fast rate that hydroxylamine can effect the formation of methemoglobin.
- A few case reports have suggested skin sensitization in employees of photograph-developing and water-analysis laboratories by sulfate and chloride salts of hydroxylamine.
- International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Hydroxylamine.
- Estlander, T., Jolanki, R. and Kanerva, L.: Hydroxylammonium chloride as sensitizer in a water laboratory. Contact Dermatitis 36(3): 161-162, 1997.
- Goh, C.L.: Allergic contact dermatitis and onycholysis from hydroxylamine sulphate in colour developer. Contact Dermatitis 22(2): 109, 1990.
- Gross, P.: Biologic activity of hydroxylamine: a review. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 14(1): 87-99, 1985.
- Kruszyna, R., Kruszyna, H., Doherty, P.A. and Smith, R.P.: Hypotensive effects of hydroxylamine in intact anesthetized dogs and cats. Arch. Toxicol. 55(3): 203-205, 1984.
- Lockamy, V.L., Shields, H., Kim-Shapiro, D.B. and King, S.B.: Iron nitrosyl hemoglobin formation from the reaction of hydroxylamine and hemoglobin under physiological conditions. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1674(3): 260-267, 2004.
- Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Hydroxylamine. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1295-1297.
- Vick, J.A. and Froelich, H.: Treatment of cyanide poisoning. Mil. Med. 156(7): 330-339, 1991.
- Vidrio, H. and Medina, M.: Hypotensive effect of hydroxylamine, an endogenous nitric oxide donor and SSAO inhibitor. J. Neural Transm. 114: 863:865, 2007.
Date Last Revised: 04/24/2007
** All Trademarks are the property of their respective owners.