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General Description

Synonyms: Oxammonium

OSHA IMIS Code Number: R292

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 7803-49-8

NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: NC2975000

Chemical Description and Physical Properties:

very hygroscopic white needles or flakes
molecular weight: 33.04
vapor pressure: 1.3 kPa at 47°C
molecular formula: H3NO
boiling point: decomposes below <70°C
melting point: 33°C
flash point: explodes at 129°C

Incompatibilities: Reacts violently with oxidants, metals such as finely divided zinc, some metal oxides, copper(II)sulfate and phosphorus chlorides causing fire and exposion hazard

Health Factors

Potential Symptoms: Cough, sore throat; headache, dizziness, weakness; blue lips, fingernails or skin; eye redness, pain, burns; tinnitus; INGES ACUTE: nausea, vomiting; shortness of breath

Health Effects: Irritation-Eye, Nose, Throat, Skin---Marked (HE14); Methemoglobinemia (HE13); Hemolytic anemia (HE12); Narcosis (HE8)

Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system, blood, CNS

Notes:

  1. OSHA does not have a PEL for hydroxylamine.
  2. Some of the effects of hydroxylamine (e.g., lowering blood pressure) may be mediated by its conversion in the body to nitric oxide.
  3. Doses of hydroxylamine hydrochloride, 5 mg/kg intravenously or 50 mg/kg intramuscularly, were reported to protect beagle dogs from a lethal intravenous dose of sodium cyanide (2.5 mg/kg), due to the fast rate that hydroxylamine can effect the formation of methemoglobin.
  4. A few case reports have suggested skin sensitization in employees of photograph-developing and water-analysis laboratories by sulfate and chloride salts of hydroxylamine.

Literature Basis:

  • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Hydroxylamine.
  • Estlander, T., Jolanki, R. and Kanerva, L.: Hydroxylammonium chloride as sensitizer in a water laboratory. Contact Dermatitis 36(3): 161-162, 1997.
  • Goh, C.L.: Allergic contact dermatitis and onycholysis from hydroxylamine sulphate in colour developer. Contact Dermatitis 22(2): 109, 1990.
  • Gross, P.: Biologic activity of hydroxylamine: a review. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 14(1): 87-99, 1985.
  • Kruszyna, R., Kruszyna, H., Doherty, P.A. and Smith, R.P.: Hypotensive effects of hydroxylamine in intact anesthetized dogs and cats. Arch. Toxicol. 55(3): 203-205, 1984.
  • Lockamy, V.L., Shields, H., Kim-Shapiro, D.B. and King, S.B.: Iron nitrosyl hemoglobin formation from the reaction of hydroxylamine and hemoglobin under physiological conditions. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1674(3): 260-267, 2004.
  • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Hydroxylamine. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1295-1297.
  • Vick, J.A. and Froelich, H.: Treatment of cyanide poisoning. Mil. Med. 156(7): 330-339, 1991.
  • Vidrio, H. and Medina, M.: Hypotensive effect of hydroxylamine, an endogenous nitric oxide donor and SSAO inhibitor. J. Neural Transm. 114: 863:865, 2007.

Date Last Revised: 04/24/2007

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