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Synonyms: Methyl butyl ketone; Butyl methyl ketone; Methyl n-butyl ketone; MBK
OSHA IMIS Code Number: 1690
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 591-78-6
NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: MP1400000
NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, 2-Hexanone: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more
OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
General Industry: 29 CFR 1910.1000 Table Z-1 - 100 ppm, 410 mg/m3 TWA
Construction Industry: 29 CFR 1926.55 Appendix A - 100 ppm, 410 mg/m3 TWA
Maritime: 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards - 100 ppm, 410 mg/m3 TWA
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 5 ppm, 20 mg/m3 TWA; 10 ppm STEL; Skin; BEI (TLV listed under Methyl n-butyl ketone)
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 1 ppm, 4 mg/m3 TWA
NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 1,600 ppm
Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, nose, throat; peripheral neuropathy; lassitude (weakness, exhaustion), paresthesia; dermatitis; headache; nausea; drowsiness; blurred vision; unconsciousness; INGES. ACUTE: sore throat, abdominal pain, diarrhea
Health Effects: Nervous system disturbances---Polyneuropathy (HE7) Narcosis (HE8); Irritation-Eye, Nose, Throat, Skin---Moderate (HE15); Explosive, flammable (HE18)
Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system, CNS, peripheral nervous system
- Vapor/air mixtures can be explosive.
- 2-Hexanone is metabolized by CYP2E1 and alcohol dehydrogenase to 2,5-hexanedione, which can be measured in urine as a marker of exposure. Several other metabolites, including carbon dioxide, are also produced.
- Occupational exposure may be greater through the skin than by inhalation. It is estimated that immersion of both hands in 2-hexanone results in absorption of 6.4 mg/minute, whereas inhalation of 5 ppm in air leads to an estimated absorption 0.4 mg/minute.
- The metabolite 2,5-hexanedione causes peripheral neuropathy in animals and humans. It reacts with lysine residues in proteins, and may cause neuropathy by disturbing the transport and/or functions of proteins within nerve axons.
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: 2-Hexanone: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more.
- International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): 2-Hexanone.
- Bolt, H.M., Roos, P.H. and Thier, R.: The cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme CYP2E1 in the biological processing of industrial chemicals: consequences for occupational and environmental medicine. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 76(3): 174-185, 2003.
- Bos, P.M.J., de Mik, G. and Bragt, P.C.: Critical review of the toxicity of methyl n-butyl ketone: risk from occupational exposure. Am. J. Ind. Med. 20(2): 175-194, 1991.
- Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Methyl n-Butyl Ketone. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1535-1538.
- Zhu, M., Spink, D.C., Yan, B., Bank, S. and DeCaprio A.P.: Inhibition of 2,5-hexanedione-induced protein cross-linking by biological thiols: chemical mechanisms and toxicological implications. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 8(5): 764-771, 1995.
Date Last Revised: 08/19/2005
Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):
- sampling media: Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
analytical solvent: Carbon Disulfide
alternate solvent: (99:1) Carbon Disulfide:Dimethylformamide
maximum volume: 10 Liters
maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min
current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
method reference: NIOSH Analytical Method (NIOSH 1300 [26 KB PDF, 5 pages])
method classification: Fully Validated
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