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Chemical Sampling Information (CSI)
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General Description

Synonyms: Carbon; NDS; Graphite (Synthetic); Acheson graphite; Artificial graphite

OSHA IMIS Code Number: 1366
IMIS Name History: Graphite (Synthetic) prior to 9/1/89

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 7782-42-5; 7440-44-0 (Carbon)

NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: FF5250100

NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Graphite (Synthetic): chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more


Exposure Limits

OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
General Industry: 29 CFR 1910.1000 Z-1 Table -- 15 mg/m3 TWA

Maritime: 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards -- 15 mg/m3 TWA

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): Appendix D - Substances With No Established RELs


Health Factors

Potential Symptoms: Cough, dyspnea (breathing difficulty), black sputum, pneumoconiosis, decreased pulmonary function, lung fibrosis

Health Effects: Cumulative lung damage (HE10)

Affected Organs: Respiratory system, cardiovascular system

Notes:
  1. Synthetic graphite refers to a new form of carbon fiber called carbon nanotubes, which have many potential applications in electronics and aerospace.
  2. It has been suggested on the basis of single-dose intratrachial instillation studies in mice that nanotube dust is much more toxic than carbon black, and that the PEL for nuisance dust would not protect workers exposed to respirable nanotube dust from developing serious lung lesions.
  3. Studies with cultured skin cells indicate potential dermal toxicity of nanotubes due to accelerated oxidative stress.
Date Last Revised: 09/21/2005

Literature Basis:
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Graphite (Synthetic).
  • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Carbon.
  • Lam, C.-W., James, J.T., McCluskey, R. and Hunter, R.L.: Pulmonary toxicity of single-wall carbon nanotubes in mice 7 and 90 days after intratracheal instillation. Toxicol. Sci. 77(1): 126-134, 2004.
  • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Graphite. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1216-1217.
  • Shevdova, A.A., et al.: Exposure to carbon nanotube material: assessment of nanotube cytotoxicity using human keratinocyte cells. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health A 66(20): 1909-1926, 2003.
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
  • sampling media: tared 37-mm diameter low-ash polyvinyl chloride filter
    maximum volume: 960 Liters
    maximum flow rate: 2.0 L/min
    current analytical method: Gravimetric
    method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA PV2121)
    method classification: Partially Validated
    note: OSHA personnel can obtain tared sampling media from SLTC.
    note: If the net weight of the sample yields a concentration below the standard for the substance, SLTC will perform no further work on that sample. If the net weight corresponds to an amount greater than the standard, the sample may be analyzed for the appropriate element and the result reported as the substance.

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Page last updated: 04/06/2006