<< Back to Chemical Sampling Information
Synonyms: Biformyl; Ethanedial; 1,2-Ethanedione; Oxalaldehyde
OSHA IMIS Code Number: G116
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 107-22-2
NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: MD2625000
Chemical Description and Physical Properties:
Yellow prisms which turn white on cooling; soluble in anhydrous solvents.
molecular formula: C2H2O2
molecular weight: 58.04
boiling point: 51°C
melting point: 15°C
vapor pressure: 18 mm Hg @ 20°C
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 0.1 mg/m3, 0.04 ppm TWA; Inhalable fraction and vapor; see Notations/Endnotes section; Sensitizer; Appendix A4 - Not Classifiable as a Human Carcinogen
Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, nose, throat, skin; INGES. ACUTE: Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting; SKIN ABS.: Sensitizer
Health Effects: Irritation- Eye, nose, Throat, Skin---Mild (HE16); Dermatitis (HE3); Mutagen (HE2)
Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system
- OSHA does not have a PEL for glyoxal, which is considered to be essentially non-volatile in aqueous solution, although occupational exposure could occur via aerosol inhalation or skin contact.
- Biomonitoring of exposure has not been reported, as plasma and urine may contain glyoxal from other external (smog, smoke, beer, wine, coffee, fish oil) or internal (metabolic pathways) sources.
- Occupational allergy to glyoxal appears to have an increased incidence among employees in healthcare facilities where glyoxal is used in disinfectant solutions.
- Glyoxal reacts with amino groups in proteins and DNA, particularly, those in lysine, arginine, and guanine, leading to advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Lysine- to-lysine and lysine-to-arginine cross-linking of proteins by glyoxal have also been demonstrated, and formation of an adduct of glyoxal in vitro with the antihyperglycemic drug metformin has been reported.
- Glyoxal also reacts with glutathione and is metabolized to glyoxalate by intracellular glyoxalases, which are thought to inhibit formation of AGEs.
Date Last Revised: 05/02/2007
** All Trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
- International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Glyoxal (40% solution).
- World Health Organization (Kielhorn, J., Pohlenz-Michel, C., Schmidt, S. and Mangelsdorf, I.): Glyoxal (Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 57), 2004, approx. 61 pp.
- Aalto-Korte, K., Mäkela, E.A., Huttunen, M., Suuronen, K. and Jolanki, R.: Occupational contact allergy to glyoxal. Contact Dermatitis 52(5): 276-281, 2005.
- Miller, A.G., Smith, D.G., Bhat, M. and Nagaraj, R.H.: Glyoxalase I is critical for human retinal capillary pericyte survival under hyperglycemic conditions. J. Biol. Chem. 281(17): 11864-11871, 2006.
- Uter, W., Schwanitz, H.J., Lessmann, H. and Schnuch, A.: Glyoxal is an important allergen for (medical care) cleaning staff. Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health 204(4): 251-253, 2001.
- Xu, Y. and Chen, X.: Glycolase II, a detoxifying enzyme of glycolysis byproduct methylglyoxal and a target of p63 and p73, is a pro-survival factor of the p53 family. J. Biol. Chem. 281(36): 26702-26713, 2006.