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Ethylene Dichloride

General Description

  • Synonyms: Ethylene chloride; 1,2-Dichloroethane; Glycol dichloride
  • OSHA IMIS Code Number: 0874
  • Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 107-06-2
  • NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: KI0525000
  • Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Emergency Response Guidebook: 1184 131
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Ethylene dichloride: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

Exposure Limits

  • OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
  • American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) (1977) : 10 ppm (40 mg/m3) TWA; A4
  • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 1 ppm (4 mg/m3) TWA; 2 ppm (8 mg/m3) STEL; Appendix A - NIOSH Potential Occupational Carcinogens; Appendix C - Supplementary Exposure Limits (Chloroethanes)

Health Factors

  • Carcinogenic Classification:
  • NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 50 ppm
  • Potential Symptoms: CNS depression (dizziness, drowsiness, trembling, unconsciousness); nausea; vomiting, abdominal pain, skin irritation, dermatitis; eye irritation, corneal opacity, blurred vision; headache; sore throat; cough, bronchitis, pulmonary edema (may be delayed); liver, kidney, cardiovascular system damage, cardiac arrhythmia; Ingestion Acute: Abdominal cramps, diarrhea; internal bleeding (hemorrhagic gastritis and colitis); respiratory failure [potential occupational carcinogen]
  • Health Effects: Cumulative liver and kidney damage (HE3); CNS effects (HE7); Irritation-Eyes, Nose, Throat, Skin---Moderate (HE15)
  • Affected Organs: Kidneys, liver, eyes, skin, CNS, cardiovascular system
  • Notes:
    1. A study of 221 litigant hazardous clean-up workers exposed to ethylene dichloride (mean, 28 months; median 13 months) without PPE indicated a number of neuropsychological deficits, such as processing speed, attention, cognitive flexibility, motor coordination and speed, verbal memory, verbal fluency, and visuo-spacial abilities, as well as disturbed mood, impaired color vision, contrast sensitivity and dry eye syndrome.
    2. Metabolized by cytochrome P-450 2E1, a liver enzyme induced by ethanol consumption.
  • Literature Basis:
    • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Ethylene dichloride.
    • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): 1,2-Dichloroethane.
    • EPA Air Toxics Website: Ethylene Dichloride (1,2-Dichloroethane). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network
    • Bowler, R.M., Gysens, S. and Hartney, C.: Neuropsychological effects of ethylene dichloride exposure. Neurotoxicology 24(4-5): 553-562, 2003.
    • Guengerich, F.P., Kim, D.H. and Iwasaki, M.: Role of human cytochrome P-450 IIE1 in the oxidation of many low molecular weight cancer suspects. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 4(2): 168-179, 1991.
    • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Ethylene Dichloride. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp.1085-1087.
  • Date Last Revised: 06/04/2004

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
  • Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
  • maximum volume: 10 Liters
  • maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min (TWA)
  • maximum volume: 3 Liters
  • maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min (STEL)
  • maximum time: 5 Minutes
  • maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min (Ceiling)
  • maximum time: 5 Minutes
  • maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min (Peak)
  • current analytical method: Gas chromatography; GC/FID - NIOSH Gas chromatography; GC/ECD - OSHA
  • analytical solvent: Carbon Disulfide (NIOSH): o-Xylene (OSHA)
  • method reference: NIOSH Analytical Method (NIOSH 1003) and OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA 3)
  • method classification: Fully Validated
On-Site Sampling Techniques/Methods:
  • Detector Tube
  • manufacturer: AUER/MSA
  • model/type: Dichloromethane-50, MSA P/N 804416, AUER P/N 5085-823
  • sampling information: follow manufacturer's instructions
  • upper measurement limit: 720 ppm
  • detection limit: approximately 15 ppm
  • overall uncertainty: unknown
  • method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)
  • Detector Tube
  • manufacturer: Gastec
  • model/type: 135L
  • sampling information: 0.5 to 2 strokes
  • upper measurement limit: 1040 ppm
  • detection limit: 16 ppm
  • overall uncertainty: 16% for 100 to 300 ppm, 8% for 300 to 1040 ppm
  • method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)
  • Detector Tube
  • manufacturer: Matheson-Kitagawa
  • model/type: 8014-235S
  • sampling information: 1 stroke
  • upper measurement limit: 160 ppm
  • detection limit: approximately 5 ppm
  • overall uncertainty: unknown
  • method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)

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