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Chemical Sampling Information (CSI)
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General Description

Synonyms: Ethylene chloride; 1,2-Dichloroethane; Glycol dichloride

OSHA IMIS Code Number: 0874

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 107-06-2

NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: KI0525000

Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Guide: 1184 131

NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Ethylene dichloride: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more


Exposure Limits

OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
General Industry: 29 CFR 1910.1000 Z-2 Table -- 50 ppm TWA; 100 ppm Ceiling for 5 min in any 3 hours; 200 ppm Peak

Construction Industry: 29 CFR 1926.55 Appendix A -- 50 ppm, 200 mg/m3 TWA

Maritime: 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards -- 50 ppm, 200 mg/m3 TWA
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 10 ppm, 40 mg/m3 TWA; Appendix A4 - Not Classifiable as a Human Carcinogen

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 1 ppm, 4 mg/m3 TWA; 2 ppm, 8 mg/m3 STEL; Appendix A - NIOSH Potential Occupational Carcinogens; Appendix C - Supplementary Exposure Limits (Chloroethanes)


Health Factors

Carcinogenic Classification:
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Group B2, probable human carcinogen

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Group 2B, possibly carcinogenic to humans [250 KB PDF, 6 pages]

National Toxicology Program (NTP): Reasonably Anticipated to be Human Carcinogen [139 KB PDF, 3 pages]
NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 50 ppm

Potential Symptoms: CNS depression (dizziness, drowsiness, trembling, unconsciousness); nausea; vomiting, abdominal pain, skin irritation, dermatitis; eye irritation, corneal opacity, blurred vision; headache; sore throat; cough, bronchitis, pulmonary edema (may be delayed); liver, kidney, cardiovascular system damage, cardiac arrhythmia; INGES ACUTE: Abdominal cramps, diarrhea; internal bleeding (hemorrhagic gastritis and colitis); respiratory failure [potential occupational carcinogen]

Health Effects: Cumulative liver and kidney damage (HE3); CNS effects (HE7); Irritation-Eyes, Nose, Throat, Skin---Moderate (HE15)

Affected Organs: Kidneys, liver, eyes, skin, CNS, cardiovascular system

Notes:
  1. A study of 221 litigant hazardous clean-up workers exposed to ethylene dichloride (mean, 28 months; median 13 months) without PPE indicated a number of neuropsychological deficits, such as processing speed, attention, cognitive flexibility, motor coordination and speed, verbal memory, verbal fluency, and visuo-spacial abilities, as well as disturbed mood, impaired color vision, contrast sensitivity and dry eye syndrome.
  2. Metabolized by cytochrome P-450 2E1, a liver enzyme induced by ethanol consumption.
Literature Basis:
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Ethylene dichloride.
  • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): 1,2-Dichloroethane.
  • EPA Air Toxics Website: Ethylene Dichloride (1,2-Dichloroethane). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network
  • Bowler, R.M., Gysens, S. and Hartney, C.: Neuropsychological effects of ethylene dichloride exposure. Neurotoxicology 24(4-5): 553-562, 2003.
  • Guengerich, F.P., Kim, D.H. and Iwasaki, M.: Role of human cytochrome P-450 IIE1 in the oxidation of many low molecular weight cancer suspects. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 4(2): 168-179, 1991.
  • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Ethylene Dichloride. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp.1085-1087.

Date Last Revised: 06/04/2004

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
  • sampling media: Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
    analytical solvent: Carbon Disulfide (NIOSH): o-Xylene (OSHA)
    maximum volume: 10 Liters
    maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min (TWA)
    maximum volume: 3 Liters
    maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min (STEL)
    minimum time: 5 Minutes
    maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min (Ceiling)
    minimum time: 5 Minutes
    maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min (Peak)
    current analytical method: Gas chromatography; GC/FID - NIOSH Gas chromatography; GC/ECD - OSHA
    method reference: NIOSH Analytical Method (NIOSH 1003 [266 KB PDF, 7 pages]) and OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA 3)
    method classification: Fully Validated
On-Site Sampling Techniques/Methods:
  • device: Detector Tube
    manufacturer: AUER/MSA
    model/type: Dichloromethane-50, MSA P/N 804416, AUER P/N 5085-823
    sampling information: follow manufacturer's instructions
    upper measurement limit: 720 ppm
    detection limit: approximately 15 ppm
    overall uncertainty: unknown
    method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)

  • device: Detector Tube
    manufacturer: Gastec
    model/type: 135L
    sampling information: 0.5 to 2 strokes
    upper measurement limit: 1040 ppm
    detection Limit: 16 ppm
    overall uncertainty: 16% for 100 to 300 ppm, 8% for 300 to 1040 ppm
    method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)

  • device: Detector Tube
    manufacturer: Matheson-Kitagawa
    model/type: 8014-235S
    sampling information: 1 stroke
    upper measurement limit: 160 ppm
    detection limit: approximately 5 ppm
    overall uncertainty: unknown
    method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)
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