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Chemical Sampling Information (CSI)
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General Description

Synonyms: 1,2-Dibromoethane; Ethylene bromide; EDB

OSHA IMIS Code Number: 1140

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 106-93-4

NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: KH9275000

Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Guide: 1605 154

NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Ethylene dibromide: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

Exposure Limits

OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):

General Industry: 29 CFR 1910.1000 Table Z-1 referred to Table Z-2 - 20 ppm TWA; 30 ppm Ceiling (5 Minutes); 50 ppm Peak

Maritime: 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards - 25 ppm, 190 mg/m3 Ceiling; Skin

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): Skin; Appendix A3 (Confirmed Animal Carcinogen with Unknown Relevance to Humans)

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 0.045 ppm TWA; 0.13 ppm Ceiling (15 Minutes); Appendix A - NIOSH Potential Occupational Carcinogen

Health Factors

Carcinogenic Classification:

National Toxicology Program (NTP) carcinogenic classification: Reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogen [151 KB PDF, 3 pages]

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) carcinogenic classification: Group 2A, probably carcinogenic to humans [153 KB PDF, 29 pages]

NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 100 ppm

Potential Symptoms: Respiratory system, eye irritation; dermatitis with vesiculation; decreased sperm count, increased sperm abnormalities; SKIN ABS: nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea; lethargy; metabolic acidosis, liver and kidney damage; (carcinogenic)

Health Effects: Irritation-Eyes, Skin-Marked (HE14); Acute Toxicity-Liver, Kidney (HE4); Suspected Human Carcinogen (HE2)

Affected Organs: Respiratory system, liver, kidneys, skin, eyes, testes

Notes:

  1. Metabolized in the liver primarily by cytochrome P450 2E1 and conjugation with glutathione.
  2. Serious toxic interactions between ethylene dibromide inhalation (20 ppm) and the drug disulfiram (an inhibitor of CYP2E1) have been reported in rat carcinogenicity studies.
  3. Effects on sperm reported for workers exposed to peak levels less than 0.3 ppm.

Date Last Revised: 05/20/2003

Literature Basis:

  • Letz, G.A., Pond, S.M., Osterloh, J.D., Wade, R.L. and Becker, C.E.: Two fatalities after acute occupational exposure to ethylene dibromide. JAMA 252(17): 2428-2431, 1984 (symptoms of fatal exposure).
  • Ratcliffe, J.M., Schrader, S.M., Steenland, K., Clapp, D.E., Turner, T. and Hornung, R.W.: Semen quality in papaya workers with long term exposure to ethylene dibromide. Br. J. Ind. Med. 44(5): 317-326, 1987 (sperm toxicity).
  • Wormhoudt, L.W., Ploemen, J.H., de Waziers, I., Commandeur, J.N., Beaune, P.H., van Bladeren, P.J. and Vermeulen, N.P.: Inter-individual variability in the oxidation of 1,2-dibromoethane: use of heterologously expressed human cytochrome P450 and human liver microsomes. Chem. Biol. Interact. 101(3): 175-192, 1996 (metabolism).
  • Stein, H.P., Bahlman, L.J., Leidel, N.A., Parker, J.C., Thomas, A.W. and Millar, J.D.: Ethylene dibromide and disulfiram toxic interaction. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 39(7): A35-37, 1978 (interaction with disulfiram).
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:

  • sampling media: Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
    analytical solvent: Xylene
    maximum volume: 10 Liters   
    maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min (TWA)
    minimum time: 5 Minutes   
    maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min (Ceiling)
    minimum time: 5 Minutes   
    maximum flow rate:
    0.2 L/min (Peak)
    current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/ECD
    method reference: OSHA Manual of Analytical Methods (OSHA 2 & Supplement)
    method classification: Fully Validated
    note: Sample must be refrigerated and analyzed as soon as possible.

On-Site Sampling Techniques/Methods:

  • device: Detector Tube
    manufacturer: AUER/MSA
    model/type: Trichloroethane-5, MSA P/N 487343, AUER P/N 5086-834
    sampling information: follow manufacturer's instructions
    upper measurement limit: 700 ppm
    detection limit: approx. 25 ppm
    overall uncertainty: unknown
    method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)

    device: Detector Tube
    manufacturer: Gastec
    model/type: 136L
    sampling information: 1 stroke
    upper measurement limit: 80 ppm
    detection limit: approx. 4 ppm
    overall uncertainty: unknown
    method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)

    device: Detector Tube
    manufacturer: Gastec
    model/type: 136H
    sampling information: 1 stroke
    upper measurement limit: 210 ppm
    detection limit: approx. 7 ppm
    overall uncertainty: unknown
    method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)

    device: Detector Tube
    manufacturer: Matheson-Kitagawa
    model/type: 8014-166S
    sampling information: follow manufacturer's instructions
    upper measurement limit: 50 ppm
    detection limit: approx. 1 ppm
    overall uncertainty: unknown
    method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)

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