Potential Symptoms: IN MEN: Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, edema; feminization (gynecomastia, galactorrhea, erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism, oligospermia); IN WOMEN: Menstrual disorders (menorrhagia, metrorrhagia); headache, nausea; endometriosis pain; mastodynia; fluid retention; possible decrease in milk production by lactating mothers
Health Effects: Known human carcinogen (endometrial cancer) (HE2); Gallstones (HE3); Impairment of fertility (HE5)
Affected Organs: Male and female reproductive systems
Estradiol is an OSHA Select carcinogen and is listed as a hazardous drug in the OSHA Technical Manual, as well as in a NIOSH Alert on hazardous drugs.
17β-Estradiol has high affinities for both the α and β estrogen receptors, with dissociation constants in the subnanomolar range.
Mean serum estradiol levels in samples from postmenopausal women of unknown ovarian status were reported to be about one-third the levels of estradiol found in samples from elderly men. Estradiol levels are relatively stable in men aged 40-80.
No Author: Estrogens, Steroidal (PDF). Report on Carcinogens (latest edition); U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
Bélanger, A., et al.: Changes in serum concentrations of conjugated and unconjugated steroids in 40- to 80-year-old men. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 79(4): 1086-1090, 1994.
de Ronde, W., Hofman, A., Pols, H.A.P. and de Jong, F.H.: A direct approach to the estimation of the origin of oestrogens and androgens in elderly men by comparison with hormone levels in postmenopausal women. Eur. J. Endocrinol. 152(2): 261-268, 2005.
Gruber, C.J., Tschugguel, W. Schneeberger, C. and Huber J.C.: Production and actions of estrogens. N. Engl. J. Med. 346(5): 340-352, 2002.
Kuiper, G.G.J.M., et al.: Comparison of the ligand binding specificity and transcript tissue distribution of estrogen receptors a and β. Endocrinology138(3): 863-870, 1997.
Muller, M., den Tonkelaar, I., Thijssen, J.H., Grobbee, D.E. and van der Schouw, Y.T.: Endogenous sex hormones in men aged 40-80 years. Eur. J. Endocrinol. 149(6): 583-589, 2003.
Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Estradiol 17β. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1023-1025.
Storgaard, L., Bonde, J.P. and Olsen, J.: Male reproductive disorders in humans and prenatal indicators of estrogen exposure. A review of the published epidemiological studies. Reprod. Toxicol. 21(1): 4-15, 2006.
Uhler, M.L., Marks, J.W., Voigt, B.J. and Judd, H.L.: Comparison of the impact of transdermal versus oral estrogens on biliary markers of gallstone formation in postmenopausal women. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 83(2): 410-414, 1998.
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