NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH):75 ppm
Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, skin with deep pain; abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting; headache; sore throat, cough, respiratory distress (labored breathing, shortness of breath), pulmonary edema (may be delayed); skin pain, burns, blisters (may be delayed), sensitization; cyanosis; reproductive effects; [potential occupational carcinogen]; Ingestion Acute: Abdominal cramps, diarrhea, burning sensation in throat, chest; shock or collapse.
Health Effects: Irritation-Eye, Skin---Marked/Skin sensitization, permanent loss of vision (HE14); Asthma (HE9); Suspect Carcinogen/mutagen (HE2); Kidney and liver damage (HE3)
Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system, kidneys, liver, reproductive system
Epichlorohydrin is an OSHA Select Carcinogen
EPA's inhalation reference concentration (daily inhalational exposure likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime) for epichlorhydrin is 1 µg/m3.
It has been suggested that occupational exposure to epichlorohydrin concentrations less than 0.2 ppm may be associated with abnormalities of lung function.
The major urinary metabolite of chlorohydrin in rats is 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid.
Attempts to monitor occupational exposure have included the measurement of N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)valine in hemoglobin, but baseline levels of this adduct vary greatly in non-exposed workers and are significantly increased 2-4 fold in smokers compared with non-smokers.
Studies in rodents indicate that epichlorohydrin (or an active metabolite) also forms adducts with DNA and RNA.
De Rooij, B.M., Commandeur, J.N., Ramcharan, J.R., Schuilenburg, H.C., Van Baar, B.L. and Vermeulen, N.P.: Identification and quantitative determination of 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid and alpha-chlorohydrin in urine of rats treated with epichlorohydrin. J. Chromatogr. B Biomed. Appl.685(2): 241-250, 1996.
Hindsø Landin, H., Grummt, T. Laurent, C. and Tates, A.: Monitoring of occupational exposure to epichlorohydrin by genetic effects and hemoglobin adducts. Mutat. Res.381(2): 217-226, 1997.
Luo, J.-C., Cheng, T.-J., Kuo, H.-W. and Chang, M.J.W.: Decreased lung function associated with occupational exposure to epichlorohydrin and the modification effects of glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms. J. Occup. Environ. Med.46(3): 280-286, 2004.
Mazzullo, M., Colacci, A., Grilli, S., Prodi, G. and Arfellini, G.: In vivo and in vitro binding of epichlorohydrin to nucleic acids. Cancer Lett.23(1): 81-90, 1984.
No Author: Epichlorohydrin (PDF). Report on Carcinogens (latest edition); U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Epichlorohydrin. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1015-1017.
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