- Synonyms: 1-Chloro-2,3-epoxy-propane; 2-Chloropropylene oxide; gamma-Chloropropylene oxide; Composite Constituent
- OSHA IMIS Code Number: 0645
- Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 106-89-8 NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: TX4900000
- Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Emergency Response Guidebook: 2023 131P
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Epichlorohydrin: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more
- OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
- American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 0.5 ppm TWA; Skin; Appendix A3 - Confirmed Animal Carcinogen with Unknown Relevance to Humans
- National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): Appendix A - NIOSH Potential Occupational Carcinogens
- Carcinogenic Classification:
- Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Group B2, probable human carcinogen
- International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Group 2A, probably carcinogenic to humans (Epichlorohydrin)
- National Toxicology Program (NTP): Reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogen (PDF)
- NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 75 ppm
- Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, skin with deep pain; abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting; headache; sore throat, cough, respiratory distress (labored breathing, shortness of breath), pulmonary edema (may be delayed); skin pain, burns, blisters (may be delayed), sensitization; cyanosis; reproductive effects; [potential occupational carcinogen]; Ingestion Acute: Abdominal cramps, diarrhea, burning sensation in throat, chest; shock or collapse.
- Health Effects: Irritation-Eye, Skin---Marked/Skin sensitization, permanent loss of vision (HE14); Asthma (HE9); Suspect Carcinogen/mutagen (HE2); Kidney and liver damage (HE3)
- Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system, kidneys, liver, reproductive system
- Epichlorohydrin is an OSHA Select Carcinogen
- EPA's inhalation reference concentration (daily inhalational exposure likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime) for epichlorhydrin is 1 µg/m3.
- It has been suggested that occupational exposure to epichlorohydrin concentrations less than 0.2 ppm may be associated with abnormalities of lung function.
- The major urinary metabolite of chlorohydrin in rats is 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid.
- Attempts to monitor occupational exposure have included the measurement of N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)valine in hemoglobin, but baseline levels of this adduct vary greatly in non-exposed workers and are significantly increased 2-4 fold in smokers compared with non-smokers.
- Studies in rodents indicate that epichlorohydrin (or an active metabolite) also forms adducts with DNA and RNA.
- Literature Basis:
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Epichlorohydrin.
- International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Epichlorohydrin.
- U.S. EPA Integrated Risk Information System: Epichlorohydrin (CASRN 106-89-8).
- De Rooij, B.M., Commandeur, J.N., Ramcharan, J.R., Schuilenburg, H.C., Van Baar, B.L. and Vermeulen, N.P.: Identification and quantitative determination of 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid and alpha-chlorohydrin in urine of rats treated with epichlorohydrin. J. Chromatogr. B Biomed. Appl. 685(2): 241-250, 1996.
- Hindsø Landin, H., Grummt, T. Laurent, C. and Tates, A.: Monitoring of occupational exposure to epichlorohydrin by genetic effects and hemoglobin adducts. Mutat. Res. 381(2): 217-226, 1997.
- Luo, J.-C., Cheng, T.-J., Kuo, H.-W. and Chang, M.J.W.: Decreased lung function associated with occupational exposure to epichlorohydrin and the modification effects of glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 46(3): 280-286, 2004.
- Mazzullo, M., Colacci, A., Grilli, S., Prodi, G. and Arfellini, G.: In vivo and in vitro binding of epichlorohydrin to nucleic acids. Cancer Lett. 23(1): 81-90, 1984.
- No Author: Epichlorohydrin (PDF). Report on Carcinogens (latest edition); U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
- Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Epichlorohydrin. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1015-1017.
- Date Last Revised: 06/13/2006
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA
Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):
- Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
- maximum volume: 20 Liters
- maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min
- current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
- analytical solvent: Carbon disulfide
- alternate analytical solvent: (99:1) Carbon Disulfide:Dimethylformamide
- method reference: NIOSH Analytical Method (NIOSH 1010 (PDF))
- method classification: Fully Validated
Wipe Sampling Method:
- Charcoal pad
- note: Seal in glass vial for shipment.
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