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Chemical Sampling Information (CSI)
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General Description

Synonyms: 1-Chloro-2,3-epoxy-propane; 2-Chloropropylene oxide; gamma-Chloropropylene oxide; Composite Constituent

OSHA IMIS Code Number: 0645

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 106-89-8

NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: TX4900000

Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Guide: 2023 131P

NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Epichlorohydrin: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

Exposure Limits

OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):

General Industry: 29 CFR 1910.1000 Z-1 Table -- 5 ppm, 19 mg/m3 TWA; Skin

Construction Industry: 29 CFR 1926.55 Appendix A -- 5 ppm, 19 mg/m3 TWA; Skin

Maritime: 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards -- 5 ppm, 19 mg/m3 TWA; Skin

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 0.5 ppm TWA; Skin; Appendix A3 - Confirmed Animal Carcinogen with Unknown Relevance to Humans

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): Appendix A - NIOSH Potential Occupational Carcinogens

Health Factors

Carcinogenic Classification:

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Group B2, probable human carcinogen

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Group 2A, probably carcinogenic to humans (Epichlorohydrin) [381 KB PDF, 171 pages]

National Toxicology Program (NTP): Reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogen [180 KB PDF, 3 pages]

NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 75 ppm

Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, skin with deep pain; abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting; headache; sore throat, cough, respiratory distress (labored breathing, shortness of breath), pulmonary edema (may be delayed); skin pain, burns, blisters (may be delayed), sensitization; cyanosis; reproductive effects; [potential occupational carcinogen]; INGES. ACUTE: Abdominal cramps, diarrhea, burning sensation in throat, chest; shock or collapse.

Health Effects: Irritation-Eye, Skin---Marked/Skin sensitization, permanent loss of vision (HE14); Asthma (HE9); Suspect Carcinogen/mutagen (HE2); Kidney and liver damage (HE3)

Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system, kidneys, liver, reproductive system

Notes:

  1. Epichlorohydrin is an OSHA Select Carcinogen
  2. EPAs inhalation reference concentration (daily inhalational exposure likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime) for epichlorhydrin is 1 g/m3.
  3. It has been suggested that occupational exposure to epichlorohydrin concentrations less than 0.2 ppm may be associated with abnormalities of lung function.
  4. The major urinary metabolite of chlorohydrin in rats is 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid.
  5. Attempts to monitor occupational exposure have included the measurement of N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)valine in hemoglobin, but baseline levels of this adduct vary greatly in non-exposed workers and are significantly increased 2-4 fold in smokers compared with non-smokers.
  6. Studies in rodents indicate that epichlorohydrin (or an active metabolite) also forms adducts with DNA and RNA.

Date Last Revised: 06/13/2006

Literature Basis:

  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Epichlorohydrin.
  • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Epichlorohydrin.
  • U.S. EPA Integrated Risk Information System: Epichlorohydrin (CASRN 106-89-8).
  • De Rooij, B.M., Commandeur, J.N., Ramcharan, J.R., Schuilenburg, H.C., Van Baar, B.L. and Vermeulen, N.P.: Identification and quantitative determination of 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid and alpha-chlorohydrin in urine of rats treated with epichlorohydrin. J. Chromatogr. B Biomed. Appl. 685(2): 241-250, 1996.
  • Hinds Landin, H., Grummt, T. Laurent, C. and Tates, A.: Monitoring of occupational exposure to epichlorohydrin by genetic effects and hemoglobin adducts. Mutat. Res. 381(2): 217-226, 1997.
  • Luo, J.-C., Cheng, T.-J., Kuo, H.-W. and Chang, M.J.W.: Decreased lung function associated with occupational exposure to epichlorohydrin and the modification effects of glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 46(3): 280-286, 2004.
  • Mazzullo, M., Colacci, A., Grilli, S., Prodi, G. and Arfellini, G.: In vivo and in vitro binding of epichlorohydrin to nucleic acids. Cancer Lett. 23(1): 81-90, 1984.
  • No Author: Epichlorohydrin [180 KB PDF, 3 pages]. Report on Carcinogens (latest edition); U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
  • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Epichlorohydrin. In, Sittigs Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1015-1017.
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):

  • sampling media: Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
    analytical solvent: Carbon disulfide
    alternate analytical solvent: (99:1) Carbon Disulfide:Dimethylformamide
    maximum volume: 20 Liters
    maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min
    current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
    method reference: NIOSH Analytical Method (NIOSH 1010 [21 KB PDF, 4 pages])
    method classification: Fully Validated

Wipe Sampling Method:

  • sampling media: Charcoal pad
    note: Seal in glass vial for shipment.
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