Synonyms: Dimethyl ester of sulfuric acid; Dimethylsulfate; Dimethyl Sulphate; Methyl sulfate
OSHA IMIS Code Number: 0960
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 77-78-1
NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: WS8225000
Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Guide: 1595 156
NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Dimethyl sulfate: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more
OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
General Industry: 29 CFR 1910.1000 Table Z-1 -- 1 ppm, 5 mg/m3 TWA; Skin
Construction Industry: 29 CFR 1926.55 Appendix A -- 1 ppm, 5 mg/m3 TWA; Skin
Maritime: 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards -- 1 ppm, 5 mg/m3 TWA; Skin
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 0.1 ppm, 0.52 mg/m3 TWA; Skin; Appendix A3 - Confirmed Animal Carcinogen with Unknown Relevance to Humans
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 0.1 ppm, 0.5 mg/m3 TWA; Skin; Appendix A - NIOSH Potential Occupational Carcinogens
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Group B2, Probable human carcinogen
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Group 2A, Probably carcinogenic to humans [105 KB PDF, 14 pages]
National Toxicology Program (NTP): Reasonably Anticipated to be Human Carcinogen [119 KB PDF, 2 pages]
NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 7 ppm
Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, nose; headache; dizziness; lacrimation, conjunctivitis; photophobia; periorbital edema; sore throat; hoarseness, aphonia, dysphagia, cough; chest tightness, pain; dyspnea, pulmonary edema (delayed); cyanosis; vomiting, diarrhea; dysuria; analgesia; fever; proteinuria, hematuria; skin, eye burns; blurred vision; delirium (potential occupational carcinogen); INGES ACUTE: Abdominal cramps; burning sensation; edema of lips, tongue and pharynx; convulsions; shock or collapse.
Health Effects: Mutagen (HE2); Acute eye, lung and skin effects (HE4)
Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system, liver, kidneys, CNS
- No odor warning if toxic concentrations are present. Lethal exposure known to be as low as 97 ppm for 10 minutes.
- Reactions include decomposition on contact with water to methanol, methyl hydrogen sulfate and sulfuric acid; and methylation of DNA and some proteins.
- Blood N-methylvaline levels have been used to study occupational exposure to dimethyl sulfate and suggest skin as the major site of absorption.
- EPA Air Toxics Website: Dimethyl sulfate. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network.
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Dimethyl sulfate.
- NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances: Sulfuric acid, dimethyl ester (RTECS # WS8225000).
- International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Dimethyl sulfate.
- Anonymous: Dimethyl sulfate. IARC Monogr. Eval. Carcinog. Risks Hum. 71(Pt. 2): 575-588, 1999.
- Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Dimethyl Sulfate. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 939-941.
- Schettgen, T., Broding, H.C., Angerer, J. and Drexler, H.: Dimethyl sulphate: a hidden problem in occupational medicine. Occup. Environ. Med. 61(1): 73-75, 2004.
- Wang, Y., Xia, J. and Wang, Q.: Clinical report on 62 cases of acute dimethyl sulfate intoxication. Am. J. Ind. Med. 13(4): 455-462, 1988.
Date Last Revised: 03/10/2004
Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):
- sampling media: Porapak Q Tube (100/50 mg sections, 50/80 mesh)
analytical solvent: Acetone
maximum volume: 10 Liters
maximum flow rate: 0.1 L/min
current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FPD
method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA PV2147)
method classification: Partially Validated
On-Site Sampling Techniques/Methods:
- device: Detector Tube
model/type: Dimethyl Sulphate 0.005/c, order no. 67 18701
sampling information: 200 strokes
upper measurement limit: 0.05 ppm
detection limit: approximately 0.005 ppm
overall uncertainty: approximately 50%
method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)
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