- Synonyms: DMF; DMFA; N,N-Dimethylformamide; Composite Constituent; Dimethyl formamide
- OSHA IMIS Code Number: 0930
- Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 68-12-2
- NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: LQ2100000
- Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Emergency Response Guidebook: 2265 129
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Dimethylformamide: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more
- OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
- American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) (1995): 10 ppm (30 mg/m3) TWA; Skin; A4
- National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 10 ppm (30 mg/m3) TWA; Skin
- NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 500 ppm
- Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, skin, respiratory system; nausea, vomiting, colic; liver damage, hepatomegaly; high blood pressure; facial flushing; dermatitis. In animals: kidney, heart damage
- Health Effects: Irritation-Eyes---Marked (HE14); Cumulative liver damage (HE3); CNS effects (HE7); Mutagen (HE2)
- Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system, liver, kidneys, cardiovascular system
- Most cases of facial flushing occur after ingestion of alcoholic beverages and may be due to elevated acetaldehyde levels from ethanol metabolism.
- Metabolized by cytochrome P450 2E1 to N-hydroxymethyl-N-methylformamide, which loses formaldehyde to form the measurable urinary metabolite, N-methylformamide (NMF). This is further metabolized by CYP2E1 to an intermediate that reacts with glutathione and is eventually excreted as N-acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)-L-cysteine (AMCC). Both NMF and AMCC are urinary markers for exposure.
- Another marker for exposure to DMF is N-methylcarbamoylated hemoglobin in blood, which is thought to be due to reaction of the metabolite methylisocyanate with the N-terminal amino acid in globin, valine. A concentration of 135 nmol of adduct per gram of globin has been estimated to occur after repeated inhalation exposure to 10 ppm dimethylformamide.
- Significant occupational exposure can occur via absorption through the skin.
- Reduced sperm motility has been reported in workers exposed dermally to dimethylformamide in a synthetic leather factory.
- EPA's provisional oral reference dose (daily oral exposure likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime) for dimethylformamide is 0.1 mg/kg/day, and its reference concentration (RfC) is 0.03 mg/m3.
- Literature Basis:
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Dimethylformamide.
- International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): N,N-Dimethylformamide.
- EPA Air Toxics Website: N,N-Dimethylformamide. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network.
- Angerer, J., Göen, T., Krämer, A. and Käfferlein, H.U.: N-methylcarbamoyl adducts at the N-terminal valine of globin in workers exposed to N,N-dimethylformamide. Arch. Toxicol. 72(5): 309-313, 1998.
- Chang, H.-Y., Shih, T.-S., Guo, Y.-L., Tsai, C.-Y. and Hsu, P.-C.: Sperm function in workers exposed to N,N-dimethylformamide in the synthetic leather industry. Fertil. Steril. 81(6): 1589-1594, 2004.
- Chang, H.-Y., Tsai, C.-Y., Lin, Y.-Q., Shih, T.-S., and Lin, W.-C.: Total body burden arising from a week's repeated dermal exposure to N,N-dimethylformamide. Occup. Environ. Med. 62(3): 151-156, 2005.
- Cox, N.H. and Mustchin, C.P.: Prolonged spontaneous and alcohol-induced flushing due to the solvent dimethylformamide. Contact Dermatitis 24(1): 69-70, 1991.
- Dimethylformamide. IARC Monogr. Eval. Carcinog. Risks Hum. 71(Pt. 2): 545-574, 1999.
- Käfferlein, H.U., et al.: The use of biomarkers of exposure of N,N-dimethylformamide in health risk assessment and occupational hygiene in the polyacrylic fibre industry. Occup. Environ. Med. 62(5): 330-336, 2005.
- Mráz, J., Dušková, Š., Gálová, E., Nohová, H. and Brabec, M.: Biological monitoring of N,N-dimethylformamide. Reference value for N-methylcarbamoyl adduct at the N-terminal valine as a biomarker of chronic occupational exposure. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 75(Suppl.): S93-96, 2002.
- Pohanish, R.P. (editor): N,N-Dimethylformamide. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 926-928.
- Date Last Revised: 08/09/2005
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA
Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):
- Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections; 20/40 mesh)
- analytical solvent: Acetone
- maximum volume: 10 Liters
- maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min
- current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/NPD
- alternate analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
- method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA 66)
- method classification: Fully Validated
- Silica Gel Tube (150/75 mg sections; 20/40 mesh)
- analytical solvent: Methanol
- alternate solvent: Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)
- maximum volume: 80 Liters
- maximum flow rate: 1.0 L/min
- current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
- method reference: NIOSH Analytical Method (NIOSH 2004)
- method classification: Fully Validated
Wipe Sampling Method:
- Wipe with charcoal pad, seal in glass vial for shipment
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