- Synonyms: 2,2'-Iminobisethanol; 2,2'-Iminodiethanol; Diethylolamine; Bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amine; 2,2'-Dihydroxydiethylamine; DEA
- OSHA IMIS Code Number: D129
- Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 111-42-2
- NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: KL2975000
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Diethanolamine: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more
- American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) (2008): 1 mg/m3 (inhalable fraction and vapor) TWA; Skin; A3
- National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 3 ppm (15 mg/m3) TWA
- Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, skin, nose, throat; lacrimation, eye burns, corneal necrosis; skin burns; sneezing, coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath; headache; nausea, vomiting; INGES ACUTE: abdominal pain, burning sensation.
- Health Effects: Irritation-Eyes, Skin, Nose, Throat---Marked (HE14); Cumulative Toxicity---Liver carcinogen in mice (HE2).
- Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system
- Although a connection between diethanolamine in metal working fluids and and increased risk of stomach cancer has been postulated, the only type of cancer caused by 2-year skin-application studies in rodents was liver cancer in mice.
- One case of diethanolamine-induced occupational asthma has been reported.
- Animal studies show slow excretion in the urine and accumulation in liver, kidney, spleen, and brain, where it may be metabolized into aberrant phospholipids.
- Literature Basis:
- EPA Air Toxics Website: Diethanolamine. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network.
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Diethanolamine.
- International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Diethanolamine.
- Mathews, J.M., Garner, C.E. and Matthews, H.B.: Metabolism, bioaccumulation, and incorporation of diethanolamine into phospholipids. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 8(5): 625-633, 1995.
- Mirer, F.: Updated epidemiology of workers exposed to metalworking fluids provides sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity. Appl. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 18(11):902-912, 2003.
- National Toxicology Program: NTP Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of diethanolamine (CAS No. 111-42-2) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (dermal studies). Natl. Toxicol. Program Tech. Rep. Ser. 478: 1-212, 1999.
- Piipari, R., et al.: Diethanolamine-induced occupational asthma, a case report. Clin. Exp. Allergy 28(3): 358-362, 1998.
- Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Diethanolamine. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 860-862.
- Date Last Revised: 02/09/2004
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA
Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):
- Coated XAD-2 Tube (80/40 mg sections, 20/60 mesh); Coating is 10% (w/w) 1-Naphthylisothiocyanate (NITC)
- analytical solvent: Dimethylformamide
- maximum volume: 10 Liters
- maximum flow rate: 0.1 L/min
- current analytical method: High Performance Liquid chromatography; HPLC/UV
- method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA PV2018)
- method classification: Partially Validated
- note: OSHA personnel may obtain sampling tubes from the Salt Lake Technical Center.
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