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Dichlorvos (DDVP)

General Description

  • Synonyms: 2,2-Dichlorovinyl Dimethyl Phosphate; Vapona; 2,2-Dichlorobinyldimethyl Phosphate; 2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl ester phosphoric acid
  • OSHA IMIS Code Number: 0850
  • IMIS Name History: DDVP prior to 9/1/89
  • Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 62-73-7
  • NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: TC0350000
  • Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Emergency Response Guidebook: 2783 152
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Dichlorvos: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

Exposure Limits

  • OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
  • American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) (1998): 0.1 mg/m3 (inhalable fraction and vapor) TWA; Skin; dermal sensitzer (DSEN); A4
  • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 1 mg/m3 TWA; Skin

Health Factors

  • Carcinogenic Classification:
  • NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 100 mg/m3
  • Potential Symptoms: Miosis, aching eyes; rhinorrhea; headache; tight chest, wheezing, laryngeal spasms; salivation; slurred speech; cyanosis; anorexia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea; involuntary defecation and urination; sweating, muscle fasciculation, paralysis, giddiness, ataxia; convulsions, low blood pressure; cardiac irregularities; skin, eye irritation; skin sensitization, dermatitis.
  • Health Effects: Cholinesterase inhibition (HE6); LD50 (oral, rat) 56-80 mg/kg
  • Affected Organs: Respiratory system, cardiovascular system, CNS, eyes, skin, blood cholinesterase
  • Notes:
    1. Although no cases of neuropathy from occupational exposure have been reported, cases of a delayed neuropathy following recovery from acute poisoning with dichlorvos have been reported.
    2. Exposure is monitored by the measurement of plasma cholinesterase activity (recovers exponentially with a half-life around 12 days) and erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity (recovers linearly in about 80 days).
    3. One case of persistent asthma (bronchial obstruction) following occupational exposure to dichlorvos has been reported, and in another case, asthma was provoked by exposure to a cat's plastic collar containing dichlorvos.
  • Literature Basis:
    • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Dichlorvos.
    • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Dichlorvos.
    • EPA Air Toxics Website: Dichlorvos. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network, Feb. 13, 2003.
    • Bryant, D.H.: Asthma due to insecticide sensitivity. Aust. N.Z. J. Med. 15(1): 66-68, 1985.
    • Deschamps, D., Questel, F., Baud, F.J., Gervais, P. and Dally, S.: Persistent asthma after acute inhalation of organophosphate insecticide. Lancet 344(8938): 1712, 1994.
    • Mason, H.J.: The recovery of plasma cholinesterase and erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity in workers after over-exposure to dichlorvos. Occup. Med. (Lond.) 50(5): 343-347, 2000.
    • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Dichlorvos. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 844-846.
    • Sevim, S., Aktekin, M., Dogu, O., Ozturk, H. and Ertas, M.: Late onset polyneuropathy due to organophosphate (DDVP) intoxication. Can. J. Neurol. Sci. 30(1): 75-78, 2003.
    • Vasconcellos, L.F. Leite, A.C. and Nascimento, O.J.: Organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy: case report. Arq. Neuropsiquiatr. 60(4): 1003-1007, 2002.
  • Date Last Revised: 05/26/2004

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
  • OSHA Versatile Sampler (OVS-2) - 13 mm XAD-2 tube (270/140 mg sections, 20/60 mesh) with Glass Fiber Filter enclosed
  • analytical solvent: Toluene
  • maximum volume: 480 Liters
  • maximum flow rate: 1.0 L/min
  • current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FPD
  • method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA 62)
  • method classification: Fully Validated
  • note: OSHA personnel may obtain sampling tubes from the Salt Lake Technical Center.
Wipe Sampling Method:
  • Glass Fiber Filter
Bulk Sampling Method:
  • Limit the amount of bulk submitted to one gram or one mL.

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