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Chemical Sampling Information (CSI)
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General Description

Synonyms: Asymmetrical dichloroethane; Ethylidene chloride; Ethylidene dichloride; 1,1-Ethylidene dichloride

OSHA IMIS Code Number: 1160

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 75-34-3

NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: KI0525000

Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Guide: 2362 130

NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, 1,1-Dichloroethane: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more


Exposure Limits

OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
General Industry: 29 CFR 1910.1000 Z-1 Table -- 100 ppm, 400 mg/m3 TWA

Construction Industry: 29 CFR 1926.55 Appendix A -- 100 ppm, 400 mg/m3 TWA

Maritime: 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards -- 100 ppm, 400 mg/m3 TWA
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 100 ppm, 405 mg/m3 TWA; Appendix A4 - Not Classifiable as a Human Carcinogen

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 100 ppm, 400 mg/m3 TWA; Appendix C - Supplementary Exposure Limits (Chloroethanes)


Health Factors

Carcinogenic Classification:
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Group C, possible human carcinogen
NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 3,000 ppm

Potential Symptoms: Skin irritation; CNS depression (dizziness, drowsiness, dullness, unconsciousness); nausea; liver, kidney, lung damage; INGES. ACUTE: Burning sensation.

Health Effects: Cumulative liver damage (HE3); Irritation-Eyes, Throat, Bronchi---Mild (HE16); Narcosis (HE8); Explosive, Flammable (HE18)

Affected Organs: Skin, liver, kidneys, lungs, CNS

Notes:
  1. 1,1-Dichloroethane is highly flammable and vapor/air mixtures can be explosive.
  2. In rats, the major metabolite of 1,1-dichloroethane is thought to be acetic acid.
  3. Subchronic treatment of rats with oral doses up to 4 g/kg/day did not cause toxicity to liver, kidneys or other organs examined in a recent study.
  4. EPA's provisional oral reference dose (daily oral exposure likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime) for 1,1-dichloroethane is 0.1 mg/kg/day, and its provisional reference concentration (RfC) is 0.5 mg/m3.
Date Last Revised: 08/25/2005

Literature Basis:
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: 1,1-Dichloroethane.
  • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): 1,1-Dichloroethane.
  • EPA Air Toxics Website: Ethylidene Dichloride (1,1-Dichloroethane). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network.
  • Muralidhara, S., Ramanathan, R., Mehta, S.M., Lash, L.H., Acosta, D. and Bruchner, J.V: Acute, subacute, and chronic oral toxicity studies of 1,1-dichloroethane in rats: application to risk evaluation. Toxicol. Sci. 64(1): 135-145, 2001.
  • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Dichlorobenzenes. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 799-804.
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
  • sampling media: Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
    analytical solvent: Carbon Disulfide
    maximum volume: 10 Liters
    maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min
    current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
    method reference: NIOSH Analytical Method (NIOSH 1003) [267 KB PDF, 7 pages]
    method classification: Partially Validated

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Page last updated: 10/18/2006

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