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1,1-Dichloroethane

General Description

  • Synonyms: Asymmetrical dichloroethane; Ethylidene chloride; Ethylidene dichloride; 1,1-Ethylidene dichloride
  • OSHA IMIS Code Number: 1160
  • Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 75-34-3
  • NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: KI0525000
  • Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Emergency Response Guidebook: 2362 130
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, 1,1-Dichloroethane: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

Exposure Limits

  • OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
  • American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) (1990): 100 ppm (405 mg/m3) TWA; A4
  • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 100 ppm (400 mg/m3) TWA; Appendix C - Supplementary Exposure Limits (Chloroethanes)

Health Factors

  • Carcinogenic Classification:
  • NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 3,000 ppm
  • Potential Symptoms: Skin irritation; CNS depression (dizziness, drowsiness, dullness, unconsciousness); nausea; liver, kidney, lung damage; INGES. ACUTE: Burning sensation.
  • Health Effects: Cumulative liver damage (HE3); Irritation-Eyes, Throat, Bronchi---Mild (HE16); Narcosis (HE8); Explosive, Flammable (HE18)
  • Affected Organs: Skin, liver, kidneys, lungs, CNS
  • Notes:
    1. 1,1-Dichloroethane is highly flammable and vapor/air mixtures can be explosive.
    2. In rats, the major metabolite of 1,1-dichloroethane is thought to be acetic acid.
    3. Subchronic treatment of rats with oral doses up to 4 g/kg/day did not cause toxicity to liver, kidneys or other organs examined in a recent study.
    4. EPA's provisional oral reference dose (daily oral exposure likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime) for 1,1-dichloroethane is 0.1 mg/kg/day, and its provisional reference concentration (RfC) is 0.5 mg/m3.
  • Literature Basis:
    • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: 1,1-Dichloroethane.
    • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): 1,1-Dichloroethane.
    • EPA Air Toxics Website: Ethylidene Dichloride (1,1-Dichloroethane). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network.
    • Muralidhara, S., Ramanathan, R., Mehta, S.M., Lash, L.H., Acosta, D. and Bruchner, J.V: Acute, subacute, and chronic oral toxicity studies of 1,1-dichloroethane in rats: application to risk evaluation. Toxicol. Sci. 64(1): 135-145, 2001.
    • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Dichlorobenzenes. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 799-804.
  • Date Last Revised: 08/25/2005

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
  • Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
  • analytical solvent: Carbon Disulfide
  • maximum volume: 10 Liters
  • maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min
  • current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
  • method reference: NIOSH Analytical Method (NIOSH 1003)
  • method classification: Partially Validated

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