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3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine and its Salts

General Description

  • Synonyms: 4,4'-Diamino-3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl; Dichlorobenzidine base; o,o'-Dichlorobenzidine; 3,3'-Dichlorobiphenyl-4,4'-diamine; 3,3'-Dichloro-4,4'-biphenyldiamine; 3,3'-Dichloro-4,4'-diaminobiphenyl
  • OSHA IMIS Code Number: 0869
  • Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 91-94-1
  • NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: DD0525000
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (and its Salts): chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

Exposure Limits

Health Factors

  • Carcinogenic Classification:
  • Potential Symptoms: Skin sensitization; dermatitis; headache; cough, sore throat; dizziness; caustic burns; frequent urination, dysuria, hematuria (blood in the urine); GI upset; upper respiratory infection; [potential occupational carcinogen]
  • Health Effects: Bladder cancer (HE1)
  • Affected Organs: Bladder, liver, lungs, skin, GI tract
  • Notes:
    1. 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (and its salts) is an OSHA Regulated Carcinogen (29 CFR 1910.1007)
    2. Mono- and di-N-acetylated metabolites of 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine have been identified in urine.
    3. Adducts of 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine and N-acetyl-3,3'-dichlorobenzidine to hemoglobin in rats treated with 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine have been quantified as a possible method for biological monitoring of occupational exposure.
    4. Similar adducts with hepatic lipids were found in rats given a single oral dose of radiolabeled 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine.
    5. Such adducts are thought to occur with reactive metabolites, possibly nitroso derivatives, formed by the action of cytochrome P450 4B1 or other P450s.
    6. Absorption of 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine applied in acetone to the skin of rats was reported to be about 50% in 24 hours.
  • Date Last Revised: 11/02/2005
  • Literature Basis:
    • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (and its Salts).
    • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine.
    • EPA Air Toxics Website: 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network.
    • No Author: 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine and Its Dihydrochloride CAS Nos. 91-94-1 and 612-83-9. Report on Carcinogens (latest edition); U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
    • Iba, M.M., Lang, B., Thomas, P.E. and Ghosal, A.: Covalent interaction of 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine with hepatic lipids. Enzymatic basis and stability of the adducts. Biochem. Pharmacol. 40(3): 581-587, 1990.
    • Imaoka, S., Yoneda, Y., Matsuda, T., Degawa, M., Fukushima, S. and Funae, Y.: Mutagenic activation of urinary bladder carcinogens by CYP4B1 and the presence of CYP4B1 in bladder mucosa. Biochem. Pharmacol. 54(6): 677-683, 1997.
    • Joppich-Kuhn, R., Hänggi, R., Sagelsdorff, P., Smith, A.E., Weideli, H.J. and Joppich, M.: Determination of dichlorobendidine-hemoglobin adducts by GC/MS-NCI. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 69(4): 240-246, 1997.
    • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (and its Salts). In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 804-806.
    • Shaw, P.V. and Guthrie, F.E.: Dermal absorption of benzidine derivatives in rats. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 31(1): 73-78, 1983.

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
  • Coated Glass Fiber Filters (37 mm) in 3 piece cassette. Coating is Sulfuric Acid.
  • maximum volume: 100 Liters
  • maximum flow rate: 1.0 L/min
  • current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/ECD
  • method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA 65)
  • method classification: Fully Validated
  • note: Within ten hours after sampling, transfer filter to glass vial containing 2 mL deionized water. Sample must be shipped and stored at 0 deg C or colder. Analyze as soon as possible. Filters may be obtained by OSHA personnel from SLTC.
Wipe Sampling Method:
  • Glass Fiber Filter
Bulk Method:
  • Limit the amount of bulk submitted to one gram or one mL.

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