American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): Exposure by all routes should be carefully controlled to levels as low as possible; Skin; Appendix A3 - Confirmed Animal Carcinogen with Unknown Relevance to Humans
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL):Appendix A - NIOSH Potential Occupational Carcinogens
Potential Symptoms: Skin sensitization; dermatitis; headache; cough, sore throat; dizziness; caustic burns; frequent urination, dysuria, hematuria (blood in the urine); GI upset; upper respiratory infection; [potential occupational carcinogen]
Health Effects: Bladder cancer (HE1)
Affected Organs: Bladder, liver, lungs, skin, GI tract
3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (and its salts) is an OSHA Regulated Carcinogen (29 CFR 1910.1007)
Mono- and di-N-acetylated metabolites of 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine have been identified in urine.
Adducts of 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine and N-acetyl-3,3'-dichlorobenzidine to hemoglobin in rats treated with 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine have been quantified as a possible method for biological monitoring of occupational exposure.
Similar adducts with hepatic lipids were found in rats given a single oral dose of radiolabeled 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine.
Such adducts are thought to occur with reactive metabolites, possibly nitroso derivatives, formed by the action of cytochrome P450 4B1 or other P450s.
Absorption of 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine applied in acetone to the skin of rats was reported to be about 50% in 24 hours.
Iba, M.M., Lang, B., Thomas, P.E. and Ghosal, A.: Covalent interaction of 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine with hepatic lipids. Enzymatic basis and stability of the adducts. Biochem. Pharmacol.40(3): 581-587, 1990.
Imaoka, S., Yoneda, Y., Matsuda, T., Degawa, M., Fukushima, S. and Funae, Y.: Mutagenic activation of urinary bladder carcinogens by CYP4B1 and the presence of CYP4B1 in bladder mucosa. Biochem. Pharmacol.54(6): 677-683, 1997.
Joppich-Kuhn, R., Hänggi, R., Sagelsdorff, P., Smith, A.E., Weideli, H.J. and Joppich, M.: Determination of dichlorobendidine-hemoglobin adducts by GC/MS-NCI. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health69(4): 240-246, 1997.
Pohanish, R.P. (editor): 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (and its Salts). In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 804-806.
Shaw, P.V. and Guthrie, F.E.: Dermal absorption of benzidine derivatives in rats. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.31(1): 73-78, 1983.
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA
Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
Coated Glass Fiber Filters (37 mm) in 3 piece cassette. Coating is Sulfuric Acid.
maximum volume: 100 Liters
maximum flow rate: 1.0 L/min
current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/ECD
note: Within ten hours after sampling, transfer filter to glass vial containing 2 mL deionized water. Sample must be shipped and stored at 0 deg C or colder. Analyze as soon as possible. Filters may be obtained by OSHA personnel from SLTC.
Wipe Sampling Method:
Glass Fiber Filter
Limit the amount of bulk submitted to one gram or one mL.
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