Urinary metabolites of o-dichloro-benzene include 4,5-dichlorocatechol, 3,4-dichlorocatechol, 2,3-dichlorophenol, and 3,4-dichlorophenol and their conjugates.
The urinary conjugates, 2,3-dichloro-phenylmercapturic acid and 3,4-dichloro-phenylmercapturic acid, were reported to have mean excretion half-lives of 5.3 and 5.9 hours, respectively, in eight volunteers.
The hepatotoxicity of o-dichlorobenzene may be due to production of reactive metabolites, possibly epoxides, which bind covalently to proteins and DNA, as well as to oxidative stress from the intracellular depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH).
Chromosome studies of laboratory workers six months after they were accidentally exposed to o-dichlorobenzene showed four times as many aberrations (single and double strand chromosome breaks) as a control group performing comparable work elsewhere.
Although a case of chloracne was recently attributed to low-level exposure to o-dichlorobenzene, chloracne was not mentioned as one of the symptoms in any of 26 accidentally exposed lab workers.
EPA's oral reference dose (daily oral exposure likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime) of o-dichlorobenzene is 0.09 mg/kg/day.
Hissink, A.M., Van Ommen, B., Krüse, J. and Van Bladeren, P.J.: A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PB-PK) model for 1,2-dichlorobenzene linked to two possible parameters of toxicity. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 145(2): 301-310, 1997.
Kumagai, S. and Matsunaga, I.: Relations between exposure to o-dichlorobenzene and concentrations of urinary metabolites. J. Occup. Health 39(2): 124-129, 1997.
McDougal, J.N., Grabau, J.H., Dong, I., Mattie, D.R. and Jepson, G.W.: Inflammatory damage to skin by prolonged contact with 1,2-dichlorobenzene and chloropentafluorobenzene. Microsc. Res. Tech. 37(3): 214-220, 1997.
Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Dichlorobenzenes. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 799-804.
Violante, F.S., Milani, S., Malenchini, G. and Barbieri, A.: Chloracne due to o-dichlorobenzene in a laboratory worker. Contact Dermatitis 52(2): 108, 2005.
Zapata-Gayon, C., Zapata-Gayon, N. and Gonzalez-Angulo, A.: Clastogenic chromosomal aberrations in 26 individuals accidentally exposed to ortho dichlorobenzene vapors in the National Medical Center in Mexico City. Arch. Environ. Health 37(4): 231-235, 1982.
Zenser, L.-P., Lang, A. and Knecht, U.: N-Acetyl-S-(dichlorophenyl)cysteines as suitable biomarkers for the monitoring of occupational exposure to 1,2-dichlorobenzene. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 69(4): 252-254, 1997.
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