EPA Inhalation Reference Concentration (RfC): Not established
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Inhalation Minimal Risk Level (MRL): Not established
NIOSH Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) concentration: Not established
Notes on Other Potential Health Effects and Hazards
Urinary 2-naphthol serves as a proportional biomarker for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are found in coke oven emissions. Workers with higher levels of exposure to PAHs also had higher levels of urinary 2-naphthol (Jeng et al. 2011).
Workers exposed to coke oven emissions have an increased risk of liver dysfunction. This effect is compounded in workers with elevated body mass indices and with hepatitis virus infection. (Hu et al. 2010).
Workers exposed to greater air concentrations of coke oven emissions had increased oxidatively damaged DNA products and mutagenicity of urine. Higher exposures also increase DNA methylation and urinary acute toxicity (Chao et al. 2008).
Coke oven workers exposed to coke oven emissions have an increased risk of chronic cough/phlegm and chronic obtrusive pulmonary diseases. This risk is compounded further if the worker smokes (Hu et al. 2006).
Date Last Revised: 09/06/2012
Chao, MR., Wang, CJ., Wu, MT., Pan, CH., Kuo, CY., Yang, HJ., Chang, LW., and Hu, CW.: Repeated measurements of urinary methylated/oxidative DNA lesions, acute toxicity, and mutagenicity in coke oven workers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 17(12):3381-3389, 2008.
Hu, Y., Chen, B., Yin, Z., Jia, L., Zhou, Y., and Jin, T.: Increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases in coke oven workers - interaction between occupational exposure and smoking. Thorax. 61(4):290-295, 2006.
Hu, Y., Qian J., Jin L., and Lu, D.: Occupational coke oven emissions exposure and risk of abnormal liver function - modifications of body mass index and hepatitis virus infection. Occup Environ Med. 67(3): 159-165, 2010.
Jeng, H.A., Pan, C., Chang-Chien, G., Diawara, N., Peng, C., and Wu, M.: Repeated measurements for assessment of urinary 2-napthol levels in individuals exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. 46(8): 865-873, 2011.
note: OSHA personnel can obtain pre-cleaned filters, vials, and Teflon-lined caps from SLTC. Submit as a separate sample. If the filter is not overloaded, samples may be collected up to an 8-hour period. After sampling, filter must be transferred to vial with a Teflon-lined cap. Sample must be protected from direct sunlight.
Limit the amount of bulk submitted to one gram or one mL.
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