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Synonyms: 1,2-Benzophenanthrene; Benzo(a)phenanthrene; 1,2,5,6-Dibenzonaphthalene; 1,2-Benzphenanthrene; Benz(a)phenanthrene
OSHA IMIS Code Number: 0692
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 218-01-9
NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: GC0700000
IPCS International Chemical Safety Card - Chrysene: Acute hazards, symptoms, physical and chemical dangers, physical properties, and more
National Toxicology Program (NTP) carcinogenic classification: Not listed
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) carcinogenic classification: Group 2B (possibly carcinogenic to humans)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) carcinogenic classification: Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals
EPA Inhalation Reference Concentration (RfC): Not established
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Inhalation Minimal Risk Level (MRL): Not established
NIOSH Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) concentration: Not established
Notes on Other Potential Health Effects and Hazards
- EPA’s Integrated Risk Information System classifies chrysene as a probable human carcinogen based on data from animal bioassays, as human data are not available (EPA 1994).
- In human prostate cancer cells, chrysene [and benzo(a)pyrene] partially inhibited the dihydrotestosterone-induced production of prostate-specific antigen protein and its mRNA, indicating an anti-androgenic effect from interaction with AhR (Kizu et al. 2003).
- Administered via intraperitoneal injection, chrysene caused liver and lung tumors and malignant lymphoma in mice. Dermal exposure caused skin carcinomas in mice (EPA 1994).
- A dose-dependent lung tumor incidence was found for chrysene injected into the lungs of rats (Wenzel-Hartung et al. 1990).
- In one study, the lymphocyte assays of smokers with head and neck cancers had a higher prevalence of chrysene (among other polyaromatic hydrocarbons) than nonsmokers with similar cancers. The effect of chrysene alone is not known (ACGIH 2001).
Date Last Revised: 09/06/2012
Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
- ACGIH: Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) - Chrysene. 2001.
- EPA: Integrated Risk Information System - Chrysene (CASRN 218-01-9). March 1994.
- Kizu, R., et al.: A role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in the antiandrogenic effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in LNCaP human prostate carcinoma cells. Arch. Toxicol. 77(6): 335-343, 2003.
- NIOSH/IPCS: International Chemical Safety Cards - Chrysene. October 2006.
- Wenzel-Hartung, R., Brune, H., Grimmer, G., Germann, P., Timm, J. and Wosniok, W.: Evaluation of the carcinogenic potency of 4 environmental polycyclic aromatic compounds following intrapulmonary application in rats. Exp. Pathol. 40(4): 221-7, 1990.
Bulk Method: Limit the amount of bulk submitted to one gram or one mL.
- sampling media: Pre-cleaned Glass Fiber Filter (37 mm)
analytical solvent: Benzene
maximum volume: 960 Liters
maximum flow rate: 2.0 L/min
current analytical method: High Performance Liquid Chromatography; HPLC/UV/FLU
method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA 58)
method classification: Fully Validated (In conjunction with Coal Tar Pitch Volatiles and Coke Oven Emissions.)
note: OSHA personnel can obtain pre-cleaned filters, vials, and Teflon-lined caps from SLTC. After sampling, filter must be transferred to a vial with a Teflon-lined cap. Sample must be protected from direct sunlight.
note: Chrysene is a polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon that OSHA has identified as one of a number of typical components of the benzene-soluble fraction of coal tar pitch volatiles. Other components include anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, phenanthrene, acridine, and pyrene. There is no specific OSHA PEL for chrysene. Chrysene is characteristic of cold tar pitch volatiles (PEL is 0.2 mg/m3) and/or coke oven emissions (PEL is 0.15 mg/m3).
Section Last Revised: 03/26/2012
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