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General Description

Synonyms:
1,2-Benzophenanthrene; Benzo(a)phenanthrene; 1,2,5,6-Dibenzonaphthalene; 1,2-Benzphenanthrene; Benz(a)phenanthrene

OSHA IMIS Code Number: 0692

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 218-01-9

NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: GC0700000

IPCS International Chemical Safety Card - Chrysene: Acute hazards, symptoms, physical and chemical dangers, physical properties, and more


Exposure Limits and Health Effects

Exposure Limit

Limit Values

HE Codes

Health Factors and Target Organs

OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) - General Industry
See 29 CFR 1910.1000 Table Z-1

See Coal Tar Pitch Volatiles

OSHA PEL - Construction Industry
See 29 CFR 1926.55 Appendix A

See Coal Tar Pitch Volatiles

OSHA PEL - Shipyard Employment
See 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards

See Coal Tar Pitch Volatiles

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL)
See Appendix C

See Coal Tar Pitch Volatiles

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) (2001)

A3; BEI See also Coal Tar Pitch Volatiles

CAL/OSHA PEL

Not established

National Toxicology Program (NTP) carcinogenic classification: Not listed

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) carcinogenic classification: Group 2B (possibly carcinogenic to humans)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) carcinogenic classification: Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals

EPA Inhalation Reference Concentration (RfC): Not established

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Inhalation Minimal Risk Level (MRL): Not established

NIOSH Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) concentration: Not established

Notes on Other Potential Health Effects and Hazards

  1. EPA’s Integrated Risk Information System classifies chrysene as a probable human carcinogen based on data from animal bioassays, as human data are not available (EPA 1994).
  2. In human prostate cancer cells, chrysene [and benzo(a)pyrene] partially inhibited the dihydrotestosterone-induced production of prostate-specific antigen protein and its mRNA, indicating an anti-androgenic effect from interaction with AhR (Kizu et al. 2003).
  3. Administered via intraperitoneal injection, chrysene caused liver and lung tumors and malignant lymphoma in mice. Dermal exposure caused skin carcinomas in mice (EPA 1994).
  4. A dose-dependent lung tumor incidence was found for chrysene injected into the lungs of rats (Wenzel-Hartung et al. 1990).
  5. In one study, the lymphocyte assays of smokers with head and neck cancers had a higher prevalence of chrysene (among other polyaromatic hydrocarbons) than nonsmokers with similar cancers. The effect of chrysene alone is not known (ACGIH 2001).

Date Last Revised: 09/06/2012

Literature Basis

  • ACGIH: Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) - Chrysene. 2001.
  • EPA: Integrated Risk Information System - Chrysene (CASRN 218-01-9). March 1994.
  • Kizu, R., et al.: A role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in the antiandrogenic effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in LNCaP human prostate carcinoma cells. Arch. Toxicol. 77(6): 335-343, 2003.
  • NIOSH/IPCS: International Chemical Safety Cards - Chrysene. October 2006.
  • Wenzel-Hartung, R., Brune, H., Grimmer, G., Germann, P., Timm, J. and Wosniok, W.: Evaluation of the carcinogenic potency of 4 environmental polycyclic aromatic compounds following intrapulmonary application in rats. Exp. Pathol. 40(4): 221-7, 1990.
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
  • sampling media: Pre-cleaned Glass Fiber Filter (37 mm)
    analytical solvent: Benzene
    maximum volume: 960 Liters
    maximum flow rate: 2.0 L/min
    current analytical method: High Performance Liquid Chromatography; HPLC/UV/FLU
    method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA 58)
    method classification: Fully Validated (In conjunction with Coal Tar Pitch Volatiles and Coke Oven Emissions.)
    note: OSHA personnel can obtain pre-cleaned filters, vials, and Teflon-lined caps from SLTC. After sampling, filter must be transferred to a vial with a Teflon-lined cap. Sample must be protected from direct sunlight.
    note: Chrysene is a polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon that OSHA has identified as one of a number of typical components of the benzene-soluble fraction of coal tar pitch volatiles. Other components include anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, phenanthrene, acridine, and pyrene. There is no specific OSHA PEL for chrysene. Chrysene is characteristic of cold tar pitch volatiles (PEL is 0.2 mg/m3) and/or coke oven emissions (PEL is 0.15 mg/m3).
Bulk Method: Limit the amount of bulk submitted to one gram or one mL.

Section Last Revised: 03/26/2012


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