- Synonyms: 2-Chloro-1,3-butadiene; Chlorobutadiene; Chloroprene
- OSHA IMIS Code Number: 0680
- IMIS Name History: Chloroprene prior to 5/30/07
- Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 126-99-8
- NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: EI9625000
- Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Emergency Response Guidebook: 1991 131P (inhibited)
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, beta-Chloroprene: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more
- OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
- American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 10 ppm, 36 mg/m3 TWA; Skin
- National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 1 ppm, 3.6 mg/m3 Ceiling (15 minutes); Appendix A - NIOSH Potential Occupational Carcinogens
- Carcinogenic Classification:
- Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Group D, not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity
- International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Group 2B, possibly carcinogenic to humans (beta-Chloroprene)
- National Toxicology Program (NTP): Reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogen (PDF)
- NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 300 ppm
- Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, skin, respiratory system; cough, sore throat; headache, dizziness, drowsiness, anxiety, irritability; dermatitis, alopecia; reproductive effects; Skin Absorption: redness, pain; [potential occupational carcinogen]
- Health Effects: Reproductive Hazard (HE5); Systemic Toxicity (HE3); Suspected human carcinogen, mutagen (HE2)
- Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system, reproductive system
- Chloroprene is an OSHA Select Carcinogen.
- EPA's inhalation reference concentration (daily inhalational exposure likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime) for chloroprene is 7 µg/m3, and EPA's provisional reference dose (RfD) for chloroprene is 0.02 mg/kg/day.
- Chloroprene is metabolized by cytochrome P-450 2E1 to reactive epoxide intermediates, including enantiomers of (1-chloroethenyl)oxirane, which can form adducts with glutathione, hemoglobin, and DNA. No reports of using any of these adducts as markers for occupational exposure to chloroprene were found.
- Anemia has been reported to occur in Fischer 344 rats exposed subchronically to 200 ppm chloroprene, as well as in employees occupationally exposed to unreported levels of chloroprene.
- Literature Basis:
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: beta-Chloroprene.
- International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Chloroprene.
- EPA Technology Transfer Network Air Toxics Website: Chloroprene (2-Chloro-1,3-Butadiene).
- Hurst, H.E. and Ali, M.Y.: Analyses of (1-chloroethenyl)oxirane headspace and hemoglobin N-valine adducts in erythrocytes indicate selective detoxification of (1-chloroethenyl)oxirane enantiomers. Chem. Biol. Interact. 166(1-3): 332-340, 2007.
- Munter, T., Cottrell, L., Ghai, R., Golding, B.T. and Watson, W.P.: The metabolism and molecular toxicology of chloroprene. Chem. Biol. Interact. 166(1-3): 323-331, 2007.
- No Author: Chloroprene (PDF). Report on Carcinogens (latest edition); U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
- Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Chloroprene. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 591-593.
- Sanotskii, I.V.: Aspects of the toxicology of chloroprene: immediate and long-term effects. Environ. Health Perspect. 17: 85-93, 1976.
- Valentine, R. and Himmelstein, M.W.: Overview of the acute, subchronic, reproductive, developmental and genetic toxicology of beta-chloroprene. Chem. Biol. Interact. 135-136: 81-100, 2001.
- Date Last Revised: 08/25/2006
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA
Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):
- Chromosorb 106 (600/300 mg sections, 60/80 mesh)
- maximum volume: 6 Liters
- maximum flow rate: 0.05 L/min
- current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/ECD
- analytical solvent: Toluene
- method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA 112)
- method classification: Fully Validated
Wipe Sampling Method:
- charcoal pad
- note: Seal in glass vial for shipment.
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