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General Description

  • Synonyms: Trichloromethane
  • OSHA IMIS Code Number: 0670
  • Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 67-66-3
  • NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: FS9100000
  • Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Emergency Response Guidebook: 1888 151
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Chloroform: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

Exposure Limits

  • OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
  • American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) (1990): 10 ppm (49mg/m3) TWA; A3
  • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 2 ppm (9.78mg/m3) STEL (60 Minutes); Appendix A - NIOSH Potential Occupational Carcinogens

Health Factors

  • Carcinogenic Classification:
  • NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 500 ppm
  • Potential Symptoms: Dizziness, mental dullness, irritability, confusion, distorted perceptions; loss of appetite, nausea; headaches; fatigue; anesthesia; hepatomegaly, hepatitis, jaundice; eye irritation (tearing, conjunctivitis, permanent eye damage), skin irritation (drying, cracking, redness, dermatitis, pain); [potential occupational carcinogen] Ingestion Acute: abdominal pain, vomiting
  • Health Effects: Cumulative liver and kidney damage (HE3); Known animal and suspected human carcinogen (HE2); Narcosis (HE8)
  • Affected Organs: Liver, kidneys, heart, eyes, skin, CNS
  • Notes:
    1. The odor threshold of chloroform (85 ppm) is greater than its PEL.
    2. Metabolized to the toxic reactive metabolite, phosgene, by the CYP2E1 and CYP2A6 isozymes of cytochrome P450, with a higher affinity for CYP2E1, an enzyme induced in the liver by chronic ethanol consumption.
  • Literature Basis:
    • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Chloroform.
    • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Chloroform.
    • EPA Air Toxics Website: Chloroform. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network.
    • Gemma, S., Vittozzi, L. and Testai, E.: Metabolism of chloroform in the human liver and identification of the competent P450s. Drug Metab. Dispos. 31(3): 266-274, 2003.
    • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Chloroform. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 568-571.
  • Date Last Revised: 01/05/2004

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
  • Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
  • maximum volume: 10 Liters
  • maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min (TWA)
  • maximum volume: 15 Liters
  • maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min (Ceiling)
  • current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
  • analytical solvent: Carbon disulfide
  • alternative solvent: (99:1) Carbon disulfide/Dimethylformamide
  • method reference: OSHA Manual of Analytical Methods (OSHA 5)
  • method classification: Fully Validated
On-Site Sampling Techniques/Methods:
  • Detector Tube
  • manufacturer: AUER/MSA
  • model/type: Trichloroethane-5, MSA P/N 487343, AUER P/N 5086-834
  • sampling information: follow manufacturer's instructions
  • upper measurement limit: 100 ppm
  • detection limit: approximately 8 ppm
  • overall uncertainty: unknown
  • method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)
  • Detector Tube
  • manufacturer: Dräger
  • model/type: Chloroform 2/a, order no. 67 28861
  • sampling information: 10 strokes
  • upper measurement limit: 10 ppm
  • detection limit: approximately 1 ppm
  • overall uncertainty: approximately 33%
  • method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)
  • Detector Tube
  • manufacturer: Gastec
  • model/type: 137L
  • sampling information: 3 or 5 strokes
  • upper measurement limit: 27 ppm
  • detection limit: 0.1 ppm
  • overall uncertainty: 16% for 0.5 to 2 ppm, 8% for 2 to 10 ppm
  • method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)
  • Detector Tube
  • manufacturer: Matheson-Kitagawa
  • model/type: 8014-152S
  • sampling information: 2 or 4 strokes
  • upper measurement limit: 500 ppm
  • detection limit: approximately 20 ppm
  • overall uncertainty: unknown
  • method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)

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