<< Back to Chemical Sampling Information

Chemical Sampling Information (CSI)
Search (use word(s)/phrase)
Table of Contents
By Name
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

By CAS Number
Quick Links

General Description

Synonyms: Trichloromethane

OSHA IMIS Code Number: 0670

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 67-66-3

NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: FS9100000

Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Guide: 1888 151

NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Chloroform: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

Exposure Limits

OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):

General Industry: 29 CFR 1910.1000 Table Z-1 - 50 ppm, 240 mg/m3 Ceiling

Construction Industry: 29 CFR 1926.55 Appendix A - 50 ppm, 240 mg/m3 Ceiling

Maritime: 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards - 50 ppm, 240 mg/m3 TWA

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 10 ppm, 49mg/m3 TWA; Appendix A3 - Confirmed Animal Carcinogen with Unknown Relevance to Humans

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 2 ppm, 9.78mg/m3 STEL (60 Minutes); Appendix A - NIOSH Potential Occupational Carcinogens

Health Factors

Carcinogenic Classification:

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Group B2, probable human carcinogen

National Toxicology Program (NTP): Group 2, reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen [153 KB PDF, 3 pages]

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Group 2B, possibly carcinogenic to humans [236 KB PDF, 52 pages]

NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 500 ppm

Potential Symptoms: Dizziness, mental dullness, irritability, confusion, distorted perceptions; loss of appetite, nausea; headaches; fatigue; anesthesia; hepatomegaly, hepatitis, jaundice; eye irritation (tearing, conjunctivitis, permanent eye damage), skin irritation (drying, cracking, redness, dermatitis, pain); [potential occupational carcinogen] INGES ACUTE: abdominal pain, vomiting

Health Effects: Cumulative liver and kidney damage (HE3); Known animal and suspected human carcinogen (HE2); Narcosis (HE8)

Affected Organs: Liver, kidneys, heart, eyes, skin, CNS

Notes:

  1. The odor threshold of chloroform (85 ppm) is greater than its PEL.
  2. Metabolized to the toxic reactive metabolite, phosgene, by the CYP2E1 and CYP2A6 isozymes of cytochrome P450, with a higher affinity for CYP2E1, an enzyme induced in the liver by chronic ethanol consumption.

Date Last Revised: 01/05/2004

Literature Basis:

  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Chloroform.
  • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Chloroform.
  • EPA Air Toxics Website: Chloroform. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network.
  • Gemma, S., Vittozzi, L. and Testai, E.: Metabolism of chloroform in the human liver and identification of the competent P450s. Drug Metab. Dispos. 31(3): 266-274, 2003.
  • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Chloroform. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 568-571.
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:

  • sampling media: Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
    analytical solvent: Carbon disulfide
    alternative solvent: (99:1) Carbon disulfide/Dimethylformamide
    maximum volume: 10 Liters   
    maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min (TWA)
    maximum volume: 15 Liters   
    maximum flow rate:
    0.2 L/min (Ceiling)
    current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
    method reference: OSHA Manual of Analytical Methods (OSHA 5)
    method classification: Fully Validated

On-Site Sampling Techniques/Methods:

  • device: Detector Tube
    manufacturer: AUER/MSA
    model/type: Trichloroethane-5, MSA P/N 487343, AUER P/N 5086-834
    sampling information: follow manufacturer's instructions
    upper measurement limit: 100 ppm
    detection limit: approximately 8 ppm
    overall uncertainty: unknown
    method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)

  • device: Detector Tube
    manufacturer: Dräger
    model/type: Chloroform 2/a, order no. 67 28861
    sampling information: 10 strokes
    upper measurement limit: 10 ppm
    detection limit: approximately 1 ppm
    overall uncertainty: approximately 33%
    method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)
  • device: Detector Tube
    manufacturer: Gastec
    model/type: 137L
    sampling information: 3 or 5 strokes
    upper measurement limit: 27 ppm
    detection limit: 0.1 ppm
    overall uncertainty: 16% for 0.5 to 2 ppm, 8% for 2 to 10 ppm
    method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)
  • device: Detector Tube
    manufacturer: Matheson-Kitagawa
    model/type: 8014-152S
    sampling information: 2 or 4 strokes
    upper measurement limit: 500 ppm
    detection limit: approximately 20 ppm
    overall uncertainty: unknown
    method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)

** All Trademarks are the property of their respective owners.


Accessibility Assistance: Contact the OSHA Directorate of Technical Support and Emergency Management at (202) 693-2300 for assistance accessing PDF materials.