- Synonyms: 1-naphthyl ester methyl carbamic acid; Methylcarbamate 1-naphthalenol; 1-Naphthyl N-methyl-carbamate; alpha-Naphthyl N-methyl-carbamate; Sevin®
- OSHA IMIS Code Number: 0525
- Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 63-25-2
- NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: FC5950000
- Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Emergency Response Guidebook: 2757 151
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Carbaryl: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more
- OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
- American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) (2007): 0.5 mg/m3 (inhalable fraction and vapor) TWA; Skin; A4
- National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 5 mg/m3 TWA; Minimize Exposure During Pregnancy
- Carcinogenic Classification:
- International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Group 3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans
- NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 100 mg/m3
- Potential Symptoms: Miosis, blurred vision, tearing; rhinorrhea (nasal discharge); salivation; sweating; abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea; tremor; dizziness; labored breathing (bronchoconstriction), cyanosis; convulsions; unconsciousness; respiratory failure; skin irritation; possible reproductive effects; delayed peripheral neuropathy (rare).
- Health Effects: Cholinesterase inhibition (HE6); Nervous System Disturbances---Delayed peripheral neuropathy (HE7) Teratogen (HE5)
- Affected Organs: Respiratory system, CNS, cardiovascular system, skin, blood cholinesterase, reproductive system
- In addition to inhibiting AChE, carbaryl also inhibits a neuropathy target esterase in nervous tissue that is associated with the development of a delayed neurotoxicity in rats, which has also been reported in humans after acute high-dose (500 mg/kg, oral) or chronic carbaryl exposure in someone taking a drug (cimetidine) that inhibits its metabolism.
- Metabolized in the liver by several cytochrome P450 isozymes to 5-hydroxycarbaryl (CYP1A1 and 1A2), 4-hydroxycarbaryl (CYP3A4 and 1A1) and carbaryl methylol (CYP2B6).
- An increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma associated with carbamate pesticide use by farmers, especially carbaryl, has been reported.
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Carbaryl.
- International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Carbaryl.
- EPA Air Toxics Website: Carbaryl. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network.
- Branch, R.A. and Jacqz, E.: Subacute neurotoxicity following long-term exposure to carbaryl. Am. J. Med. 80(4): 741-745, 1986.
- Dickoff, D.J., Gerber, O. and Turovsky, Z.: Delayed neurotoxicity after ingestion of carbamate pesticide. Neurology 37(7): 1229-1231, 1987.
- Ehrich, M., Jortner, B.S. and Padilla, S.: Comparison of the relative inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and neuropathy target esterase in rats and hens given cholinesterase inhibitors. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 24(1): 94-101, 1995.
- Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Carbaryl. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 484-486.
- Tang, J., Cao, Y., Rose, R.L. and Hodgson, E.: In vitro metabolism of carbaryl by human cytochrome P450 and its inhibition by chlorpyrifos. Chem. Biol. Interact. 141(3): 229-241, 2002.
- Zheng, T., Zahm, S.H., Cantor, KP. Weisenburger, D.D., Zhang, Y. and Blair A.: Agricultural exposure to carbamate pesticides and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 43(7): 641-649, 2001.
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA
Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
- OSHA Versatile Sampler (OVS-2) - 13 mm XAD-2 tube (270/140 mg sections, 20/60 mesh) with Glass Fiber Filter enclosed
- maximum volume: 60 Liters
- maximum flow rate: 1.0 L/min
- current analytical method: High Performance Liquid Chromatography; HPLC/UV
- method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA 63)
- method classification: Fully Validated
- note: OSHA personnel may obtain sampling tubes from the Salt Lake Technical Center.
Wipe Sampling Method:
- Glass Fiber Filter
- Limit the amount of bulk submitted to one gram or one mL.
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