Powered by GoogleTranslate


General Description

  • Synonyms: gamma-6480; gamma-BL; 1,2-Butanolide; 1,4-Butanolide; 4-Butanolide; Butyric Acid Lactone; Butyrolactone; 4-Butyrolactone; Dihydro-2(3H)-Furanone; GBL; Hydroxybutanoic Acid Lactone; 4-Hydroxybutyric Acid Lactone; NCI-C55878; Tetrahydro-2-Furanone
  • OSHA IMIS Code Number: B715
  • Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 96-48-0
  • NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: LU3500000
  • Chemical Description and Physical Properties:
    • colorless oily hygroscopic liquid
    • molecular weight: 86.1
    • vapor pressure: 0.2 kPa at 20°C
    • molecular formula: C4H6O2
    • boiling point: 204°C
    • melting point: -44°C
    • flash point: 98°C open cup

Health Factors

  • Carcinogenic Classification:
  • Potential Symptoms: Eye irritation; Ingestion Acute; Nausea, vomiting; bradycardia; hypothermia; drowsiness, CNS depression, labored breathing, unconsciousness.
  • Health Effects: Irritation-Eye, Nose, Throat, Skin-Moderate (HE15) Narcosis (HE8); Mutagen (HE2)
  • Affected Organs: Eyes, CNS
  • Notes:
    1. OSHA does not have a PEL for gamma-butyrolactone (GBL).
    2. GBL is considered to be generally recognized as safe when used as a flavoring agent (Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association number 3291; Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives number 0219) and is described has having a milky, creamy taste with a fruity peach-like nuance. It has been found in beer, wine, cooked meat, coffee, tomatoes, and in tobacco smoke.
    3. Due to significant abuse liability, GBL is on DEA's List 1 of chemicals covered by the Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act [21 CFR 1310.02(a)(24)].
    4. In rats, GBL is rapidly metabolized (t½ 1 minute) after intravenous injection to gamma-hydroxybutyrate, a CNS depressant drug (DEA Schedule III when used in the anticataplexy drug, Xyrem, with schedule I penalties if used as a "date-rape" drug).
    5. Symptoms of withdrawal in physically-dependent abusers of gamma-butyrolactone include delirium, agitated psychosis, and autonomic instability. Insomnia, anxiety, tremors, and hallucinations (visual, auditory or tactile) may also occur.
  • Literature Basis:
    • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): gamma-Butyrolactone.
    • Cartigny, B., et al.: 1H NMR spectroscopic investigation of serum and urine in a case of acute tetrahydrofuran poisoning. J. Anal. Toxicol. 25(4): 270-274, 2001.
    • Liechti, M.E., Kunz, I., Greminger, P., Speich, R. and Kupferschmidt. H.: Clinical features of gamma-hydroxybutyrate and gamma-butyrolactone toxicity and concomitant drug and alcohol use. Drug Alcohol Depend.81(3): 323-326, 2006.
    • McDaniel, C.H. and Miotto, K.A.: Gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and gamma butyrolactone (GBL) withdrawal: five case studies. J. Psychoactive Drugs 33(2): 143-149, 2001.
    • No authors listed: gamma-Butyrolactone. IARC Monogr. Eval. Carcinog. Risks Hum. 71(Pt. 2): 367-382, 1999.
    • Palmer, R.B.: γ-Butyrolactone and 1,4-butanediol. Abused analogues of γ-hydroxybutyrate. Toxicol. Rev. 23(1): 21-31, 2004.
  • Date Last Revised: 05/10/2004

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):
  • Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
  • maximum volume: 10 Liters
  • maximum flow rate: 1.0 L/min
  • current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
  • analytical solvent: (95:5) Methylene Chloride:Methanol
  • method reference: OSHA Salt Lake Technical Center In-House File
  • method classification: Not Validated
  • note: Samples were received requesting cellosolves and butyrolactone. Phase equilibrium studies looked reasonable and gama-butyrolactone was found and confirmed on the "A" portion of a sample.

** All Trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

*Accessibility Assistance: Contact OSHA's Directorate of Technical Support and Emergency Management at (202) 693-2300 for assistance accessing PDF materials.

All other documents, that are not PDF materials or formatted for the web, are available as Microsoft Office® formats and videos and are noted accordingly. If additional assistance is needed with reading, reviewing or accessing these documents or any figures and illustrations, please also contact OSHA's Directorate of Technical Support and Emergency Management at (202) 693-2300.

**eBooks - EPUB is the most common format for e-Books. If you use a Sony Reader, a Nook, or an iPad you can download the EPUB file format. If you use a Kindle, you can download the MOBI file format.

Back to Top

Thank You for Visiting Our Website

You are exiting the Department of Labor's Web server.

The Department of Labor does not endorse, takes no responsibility for, and exercises no control over the linked organization or its views, or contents, nor does it vouch for the accuracy or accessibility of the information contained on the destination server. The Department of Labor also cannot authorize the use of copyrighted materials contained in linked Web sites. Users must request such authorization from the sponsor of the linked Web site. Thank you for visiting our site. Please click the button below to continue.