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Synonyms: Butaldehyde; Butanal; Butyl aldehyde
OSHA IMIS Code Number: B707
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 123-72-8
NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: ES2275000
Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Guide: 1129 129
Chemical Description and Physical Properties:
colorless liquid with pungent odor
molecular formula: C4H8O
molecular weight: 72.12
boiling point: 74.8°C
vapor pressure: 12.2 kPa @ 20°C or 92 mm Hg @ 20°C
melting point: -99°C
flash point: -7°C
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): Appendix C - Supplementary Exposure Limits
Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, skin, respiratory tract; cough, sore throat; pulmonary edema (may be delayed); dizziness, lightheadedness; eye and skin pain, redness, burns (on contact with liquid); INGES. ACUTE: Burning sensation.
Health Effects: Irritation-Eyes, Nose, Throat, Skin---Marked (HE14); Pulmonary edema (HE4)
Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system
- OSHA does not have a PEL for butyraldehyde.
- Vapor/air mixtures of butyraldehyde may be explosive.
- Butyraldehyde occurs naturally in some foods, such as white bread, beer, milk and potato chips, and it is listed by the FDA as a synthetic flavoring substance that is permitted for direct addition to food for human consumption (21 CFR 172.515).
- Like acetaldehyde, the metabolism of butyraldehyde (to butyric acid) is significantly decreased in liver preparations from individuals who are genetically heterozygous for the mutant form of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2.
- Butyraldehyde was one of several aldehydes that evoked erythema of the skin of volunteers when applied to the skin as a patch containing 25 µl of a 75% solution in water for five minutes.
- Inhalation toxicity studies in rats (6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 12-13 weeks) indicated increased relative kidney weights in males only at 50 ppm in the 12-week study, and altered blood parameters, lesions of the nasal epithelium, and mild interstitial pneumonia at 125 ppm (and higher) butyraldehyde in the 13-week study.
- International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Butyraldehyde.
- No authors listed (NLM Toxline): Butyraldehyde: 9-day repeated vapor inhalation toxicity, vapor inhalation by dogs & rats for 12 & 13 wks, respectively & a 12-wk vapor inhalation study in rats with letter 020689 [Abstract]. EPA/OTS document #86-890000097.
- Opdyke, D.L.: n-Butyraldehyde. Food Cosmet. Toxicol. 17: 731-734, 1979.
- Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Butyraldehyde. In, Sittig’s Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 428-429.
- Wang, R.-S., Nakajima, T., Kawamoto, T. and Honma, T.: Effects of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 genetic polymorphisms on metabolism of structurally different aldehydes in human liver. Drug Metab. Dispos. 30(1): 69-73, 2002.
- Wilkin, J.K. and Fortner, G.: Cutaneous vascular sensitivity to lower aliphatic alcohols and aldehydes in Orientals. Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. 9(6): 522-525, 1985.
Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
- sampling media: Coated XAD-2 Tube (150/75 mg sections, 20/60 mesh); coating is 10% (w/w) 2-(Hydroxymethyl)piperidine
analytical solvent: Toluene
maximum volume: 5 Liters
maximum flow rate: 0.05 L/min
current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/NPD with GC/MS identification
method reference: OSHA Modified NIOSH Analytical Method (NIOSH 2539) [255 KB PDF, 10 pages]
method classification: Partially Validated
note: OSHA modification is use of GC/NPD in place of GC/FID. This is a screening method and is not quantitative.
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Page last updated: 02/25/2008
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