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General Description

  • Synonyms: nPB; Propyl bromide; n-Propyl bromide
  • OSHA IMIS Code Number: R290
  • Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 106-94-5
  • NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: TX4110000
  • Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Emergency Response Guidebook: 2344 129
  • Chemical Description and Physical Properties:
    • flammable or combustible liquid
    • molecular formula: C3H7Br
    • molecular weight: 123.01
    • boiling point: 70.9°C
    • flash point: 22°C closed cup
    • melting point: -110°C
    • vapor pressure: 13.3 kPa @ 18°C
  • Potentially hazardous incompatibilities: Reacts with strong bases and strong oxidants

Exposure Limits

  • American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 0.1 ppm

Health Factors

  • Potential Symptoms: Eye, nose, throat, skin irritation; headache; nausea; feeling drunk, ataxia; blurred vision; decreased vibration sensitivity or numbness of the feet; sleep disturbances; diarrhea, incontinence; cramping or weakness in lower extremities, difficulty walking (spastic paraparesis); fatigue, nervousness, dizziness, lightheadedness, unconsciousness.
  • Health Effects: Irritation-Eye Nose, Throat, Skin---Mild (HE16); Nervous System Disturbances (HE7); Narcosis (HE8).
  • Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system, central nervous system, peripheral nervous system
  • Notes:
    1. OSHA does not have a PEL for 1-bromopropane. In 2003, the EPA recommended an 8-hour TWA of 25 ppm for occupational exposure.
    2. Recently (2007), the EPA allowed 1-bromopropane use in metals, electronics, and precision cleaning as an alternative to ozone-depleting substances, but proposed to inhibit use in aerosol solvents and as a carrier solvent in adhesives.
    3. Biomarkers of exposure have included measurement of serum or urinary bromide ion (t½ ~ 14 days) or parent compound in urine. A method for the measurement of a metabolite in urine, 3-bromopropionic acid, has been published.
    4. Studies in rats indicate a potential for causing reproductive toxicity in both males (inhibition of spermiation) and females (disruption of follicle development), as well as developmental toxicity, thus raising concern for the upper end of reported human occupational exposures to 1-bromo-propane (18-381 ppm) from spraying activities.
    5. Some concern has been expressed for potential DNA damage from occupational exposure to 1-bromopropane, but evidence for this effect is somewhat limited.
    6. Severe neurotoxicity was reported for six employees exposed to vapors of a glue containing 1-bromopropane at a 7-hour TWA concentration of 108 ppm (range 92-127 ppm). Two years after exposure, three of them continued to experience chronic neuropathic pain and lower extremity weakness/spasticity.
  • Literature Basis:
    • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): 1-Bromopropane.
    • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: EPA's 2007 Final and Proposed Regulations for n-Propyl Bromide (nPB).
    • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: EPA Newsroom (1) Compound Allowed as Alternative to Ozone-Depleting Chemicals for Specific Uses (press release on 05/17/2007).
    • B'Hymer, C. and Cheever, K.L.: Development of a gas chromatographic test for the quantification of the biomarker 3-bromopropionic acid in human urine. J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. LifeSci. 802(2): 361-366, 2004.
    • Furuhashi, K., et al.: Effects of exposure of rat dams to 1-bromopropane during pregnancy and lactation on growth and sexual maturation of their offspring. Toxicology 224(3): 219-228, 2006.
    • Hanley, K.W., Petersen, M., Curwin, B.D. and Sanderson, W.T.: Urinary bromide and breathing zone concentrations of 1-bromopropane from workers exposed to flexible foam spray adhesives. Ann. Occup. Hyg. 50(6): 599-607, 2006.
    • Harney, J.M., Hess, J., Reh, C. and Trout, D.: NIOSH health hazard evaluation report 2000-0410-2891, STN Cushion Company, Thomasville, North Carolina (August) 2002, 39 pp.
    • Harney, J.M., Nemhauser, J.B., Reh, C.M., Trout, D. and Schrader, S.: NIOSH health hazard evaluation report HETA 99-0260-2906, Marx Industries, Inc., Sawmills, North Carolina (June) 2003, 54 pp.
    • Ichihara, G.: Neuro-reproductive toxicities of 1-bromopropane and 2-bromopropane. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Med. 78(2): 79-96, 2005.
    • Ichihara, G., et al.: A survey on exposure level, health status, and biomarkers in workers exposed to 1-bromopropane. Am. J. Ind. Med. 45(1): 63-75, 2004.
    • Ichihara, G., et al.: Neurologic abnormalities in workers of a 1-bromopropane factory. Environ. Health Perspect. 112(13): 1319-1325, 2004.
    • Majersik, J.J., Caravati, E.M. and Steffens, J.D.: Severe neurotoxicity associated with exposure to the solvent 1-bromopropane (n-propyl bromide). Clin. Toxicol. (Phila.) 45(3): 270-276, 2007.
    • National Toxicology Program: NTP-CERHR Monograph on the Potential Human Reproductive and Developmental Effects of 1-Bromopropane (1-BP). NTP CERHR MON. (9): i-III11, 2003.
    • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Bromopropane. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 380-381.
    • Toraason, M., et al.: DNA damage in leukocytes of workers occupationally exposed to 1-bromopropane. Mutat. Res. 603(1): 1-14, 2006.
  • Date Last Revised: 06/11/2007

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
  • Coconut shell charcoal (CSC) tube (6-mm o.d., 100/50-mg sections)
  • maximum volume: 12 Liters
  • maximum flow rate: 0.05 L/min
  • maximum time: 240 Minutes
  • current analytical method: Gas chromatography; GC/EECD
  • analytical solvent: (99:1) Carbon disulfide (CS2):Dimethylformide (DMF)
  • method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA 1017)
  • method classification: Fully Validated
  • Coconut shell charcoal (CSC) tube (6-mm o.d., 100/50-mg sections)
  • maximum volume: 12 Liters
  • maximum flow rate: 0.1 L/min
  • maximum time: 120 Minutes
  • current analytical method: Gas chromatography; GC/FID
  • analytical solvent: (99:1) Carbon disulfide (CS2):Dimethylformide (DMF)
  • method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA PV2061)
  • method classification: Partially Validated

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