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Chemical Sampling Information (CSI)
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General Description

Synonyms: Methyl tribromide; Tribromomethane

OSHA IMIS Code Number: 0400

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 75-25-2

NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: PB5600000

Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Guide: 2515 159

NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Bromoform: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

Exposure Limits

OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):

General Industry: 29 CFR 1910.1000 Table Z-1 - 0.5 ppm, 5 mg/m3 TWA; Skin

Construction Industry: 29 CFR 1926.55 Appendix A - 0.5 ppm, 5 mg/m3 TWA; Skin

Maritime: 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards - 0.5 ppm, 5 mg/m3 TWA; Skin

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 0.5 ppm, 5.2 mg/m3 TWA; Skin; Appendix A3 - Confirmed Animal Carcinogen with Unknown Relevance to Humans

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 0.5 ppm, 5.2 mg/m3 TWA; Skin

Health Factors

Carcinogenic Classification:

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Group B2, Probable Human Carcinogen

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Group 3, Not Classifiable as to its Carcinogenicity to Humans [381 KB PDF, 171 pages]

NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 850 ppm

Potential Symptoms: Eye, skin, respiratory system irritation; CNS depression; liver, kidney damage; reddening of the face; salivation; disturbance of movements; cough, labored breathing; headache, dizziness, convulsions, loss of memory, unconsciousness; shock

Health Effects: Irritation-Eye Nose, Throat---Marked (HE14); Cumulative liver and kidney damage (HE3); Narcosis (HE8)

Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, liver, kidneys, respiratory system, CNS

Notes:

  1. The odor threshold for bromoform (1.3 ppm) is greater than its PEL.
  2. CNS depressant effects of bromoform may be due to a potentiation of the activity of GABA(A) receptors.
  3. Bromoform is more permeable through human skin in vitro than is chloroform.
  4. EPA's reference dose (RfD) for oral exposure to bromoform is 0.02 mg/kg/day.
  5. Although bromoform can be metabolized to carbon monoxide, breath analysis of parent compound has been recommended as a biological index of occupational exposure to the trihalomethanes.
  6. In the early 1900s, bromoform was used as a sleeping aid for children with whooping cough.

Literature Basis:

  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Bromoform.
  • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Bromoform.
  • EPA Air Toxics Website: Bromoform. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network.
  • Fantuzzi, G., Righi, E., Predieri, G., Ceppelli, G., Gobba, F. and Aggassotti, G.: Occupational exposure to trihalomethanes in indoor swimming pools. Sci. Total Environ. 264(3): 257-265, 2001.
  • Kash, T.L., Jenkins, A. and Harrison, N.L.: Molecular volume determines the activity of the halogenated alkane bromoform at wild-type and mutant GABA(A) receptors. Brain Res. 960(1-2): 36-41, 2003.
  • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Bromoform. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 377-379.
  • Anders, M.W., Stevens, J.L., Sprague, R.W., Shaath, Z. and Ahmed, A.E.: Metabolism of haloforms to carbon monoxide. II. In vivo studies. Drug Metab. Dispos. 6(5): 556-560, 1978.
  • Xu, X., Mariano, T.M., Laskin, J.D. and Weisel, C.P.: Percutaneous absorption of trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, and haloketones. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 184(1): 19-26, 2002.

Date Last Revised: 06/03/2005

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):

  • sampling media: Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
    analytical solvent: Carbon Disulfide
    maximum volume: 10 Liters
    maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min
    current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
    method reference: NIOSH Analytical Method (NIOSH 1003 [113 KB PDF, 7 pages])
    method classification: Partially Validated

Wipe Sampling Method:

  • sampling media: Wipe with charcoal pad, seal in glass vial for shipment.

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