- Synonyms: Methyl tribromide; Tribromomethane
- OSHA IMIS Code Number: 0400
- Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 75-25-2
- NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: PB5600000
- Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Emergency Response Guidebook: 2515 159
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Bromoform: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more
- OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
- American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 0.5 ppm, 5.2 mg/m3 TWA; Skin; Appendix A3 - Confirmed Animal Carcinogen with Unknown Relevance to Humans
- National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 0.5 ppm, 5.2 mg/m3 TWA; Skin
- Carcinogenic Classification:
- Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Group B2, Probable Human Carcinogen
- International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Group 3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans
- NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 850 ppm
- Potential Symptoms: Eye, skin, respiratory system irritation; CNS depression; liver, kidney damage; reddening of the face; salivation; disturbance of movements; cough, labored breathing; headache, dizziness, convulsions, loss of memory, unconsciousness; shock
- Health Effects: Irritation-Eye Nose, Throat---Marked (HE14); Cumulative liver and kidney damage (HE3); Narcosis (HE8)
- Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, liver, kidneys, respiratory system, CNS
- The odor threshold for bromoform (1.3 ppm) is greater than its PEL.
- CNS depressant effects of bromoform may be due to a potentiation of the activity of GABA(A) receptors.
- Bromoform is more permeable through human skin in vitro than is chloroform.
- EPA's reference dose (RfD) for oral exposure to bromoform is 0.02 mg/kg/day.
- Although bromoform can be metabolized to carbon monoxide, breath analysis of parent compound has been recommended as a biological index of occupational exposure to the trihalomethanes.
- In the early 1900s, bromoform was used as a sleeping aid for children with whooping cough.
- Literature Basis:
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Bromoform.
- International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Bromoform.
- EPA Air Toxics Website: Bromoform. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network.
- Fantuzzi, G., Righi, E., Predieri, G., Ceppelli, G., Gobba, F. and Aggassotti, G.: Occupational exposure to trihalomethanes in indoor swimming pools. Sci. Total Environ. 264(3): 257-265, 2001.
- Kash, T.L., Jenkins, A. and Harrison, N.L.: Molecular volume determines the activity of the halogenated alkane bromoform at wild-type and mutant GABA(A) receptors. Brain Res. 960(1-2): 36-41, 2003.
- Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Bromoform. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 377-379.
- Anders, M.W., Stevens, J.L., Sprague, R.W., Shaath, Z. and Ahmed, A.E.: Metabolism of haloforms to carbon monoxide. II. In vivo studies. Drug Metab. Dispos. 6(5): 556-560, 1978.
- Xu, X., Mariano, T.M., Laskin, J.D. and Weisel, C.P.: Percutaneous absorption of trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, and haloketones. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 184(1): 19-26, 2002.
- Date Last Revised: 06/03/2005
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA
Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):
- Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
- analytical solvent: Carbon Disulfide
- maximum volume: 10 Liters
- maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min
- current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
- method reference: NIOSH Analytical Method (NIOSH 1003 (PDF))
- method classification: Partially Validated
Wipe Sampling Method:
- Wipe with charcoal pad, seal in glass vial for shipment.
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