American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 0.5 mg/m3 TWA; Appendix A4 - Not Classifiable as a Human Carcinogen. (TLV listed as Barium and soluble compounds, as Ba)
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 0.5 mg/m3 TWA (Note: The REL also applies to other soluble barium compounds (as Ba) except Barium sulfate)
NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH):1,100 mg Ba/m3
The chief pathophysiology of acute barium poisoning is a life-threatening decrease in serum potassium concentration, which may be exacerbated by blood transfusions.
Unusual cases of barium poisoning that resulted from an explosion in a munitions factory or contamination of barium sulfate with soluble barium salts in a radiologic contrast suspension have been reported.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Barium toxicity after exposure to contaminated contrast solution - Goias State, Brazil, 2003. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly Rep.52(43): 1047-1048, 2003.
Jacobs, I.A., Taddeo, J., Kelly K. and Valenziano, C.: Poisoning as a result of barium styphnate explosion. Am. J. Ind. Med.41(4): 285-288, 2002.
Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Barium. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 277-279.
Date Last Revised: 05/12/2004
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA
Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
Mixed Cellulose Ester Filter (MCEF) 0.8 microns
analytical solvent: Water Extraction
maximum volume: 960 Liters
minimum volume: 480 Liters
maximum flow rate: 2.0 L/min
current analytical method: Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy; AAS
note: Submit as a separate sample. If the filter is not overloaded, samples may be collected up to an 8-hour period. Solubility of the Barium compounds, if known, should be transmitted to the Salt Lake Technical Center. Soluble means water soluble.
Wipe Sampling Method:
Whatman smear tab Filter
analytical solvent: distilled water
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