- Synonyms: Guthion; O,O-Dimethyl S-4-oxo-1,2,3-benzotriazin-3(4H)-ylmethyl phosphorodithioate; Phosphorodithioic acid, O,O - dimethyl ester, S - ester with 3 - (mercaptomethyl) - 1,2,3 - benzotriazin - 4 (3H) - one
- OSHA IMIS Code Number: 0300
- Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 86-50-0
- NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: TE1925000
- Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Emergency Response Guidebook: 2783 152
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Azinphos-methyl: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more
- OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
- American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 0.2 mg/m3 TWA; Skin; Appendix A4, Not Classifiable as a Human Carcinogen; SEN; BEI
- National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 0.2 mg/m3 TWA; Skin
- NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 10 mg/m3
- Potential Symptoms: Miosis, aching eyes, blurred vision, lacrimation, rhinorrhea; headaches; difficulty breathing (tight chest, coughing, wheezing, laryngeal spasms); pulmonary edema; excessive salivation; cyanosis; anorexia; nausea, vomiting, diarrhea; urinary incontinence; sweating; personality changes, nervousness, giddiness, confusion; muscular weakness; twitching, paralysis; convulsions; low blood pressure; cardiac irregularities
- Health Effects: Cholinesterase inhibition (HE6); Death (HE4) LD50 (oral, rat) 11 mg/kg
- Affected Organs: Respiratory system, CNS, cardiovascular system, skeletal muscle
- Activated to the cholinesterase inhibitor azinphosmethyl-oxon by the cytochrome P450 isozymes CYP2B6, CYP1A2 and CYP3A4. CYP3A4 predominates at high concentrations of azinphos-methyl.
- Biomarkers of exposure include measurement of acetylcholinesterase activity in red blood cells and urinary excretion of the metabolites, dimethylphosphate, dimethylthiophosphate, and dimethyldithiophosphate.
- Buratti, F.M., Volpe, M.T., Meneguz A., Vittozzi, L. and Testai, E.: CYP-specific bioactivation of four organophosphorothioate pesticides by human liver microsomes. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 186(3): 143-154, 2003.
- McCurdy, S.A., et al.: Assessment of azinphosmethyl exposure in California peach harvest workers. Arch. Environ. Health 49(4): 289-296, 1994.
- Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Azinphos-Methyl. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 270-273.
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA
Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
- OSHA Versatile Sampler (OVS-2) - 13 mm XAD-2 Tube (270/140 mg sections, 20/60 mesh) with Glass Fiber Filter enclosed
- analytical solvent: Toluene
- maximum volume: 480 Liters
- maximum flow rate: 1.0 L/min
- current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FPD
- method reference: OSHA Manual of Analytical Methods (OSHA PV2087)
- method classification: Partially Validated
- note: OSHA personnel may obtain sampling tubes from the Salt Lake Technical Center.
Wipe Sampling Method:
- Glass Fiber Filter
- Limit the amount of bulk submitted to one gram or one mL
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