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Chemical Sampling Information (CSI)
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General Description

Synonyms: Actinolite asbestos; Amosite asbestos; Anthophyllite asbestos; Chrysotile asbestos; Crocidolite asbestos; Tremolite asbestos

OSHA IMIS Code Number: 9020

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 1332-21-4 (Asbestos); 12172-67-7 (Ferroactinolite asbestos); 17068-78-9 (Anthophyllite asbestos); 12172-73-5 (Amosite asbestos); 12001-29-5 (Chrysotile asbestos); 12001-28-4 (Crocidolite asbestos); 14567-73-8 (Tremolite asbestos)

NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: CI6475000

Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) 2012 Emergency Response Guidebook [4 MB PDF, 392 pages]: 2212 171 (blue, brown); 2590 171 (white)

NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Asbestos: Chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Hazard Summary - Asbestos: Uses, sources and potential exposure, acute and chronic health hazard information, and more

Exposure Limits and Health Effects

Exposure Limit

Limit Values

HE Codes

Health Factors and Target Organs

OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) - General Industry
See 29 CFR 1910.1001 Asbestos

0.1 fiber/cm3 TWA

1.0 fiber/cm3 Excursion Limit
(30 minute)

HE1

Lung, stomach, and colon cancer; mesothelioma

HE10

Nonmalignant lung disease (asbestosis) and pleural abnormalities (plaques, thickening)

OSHA PEL - Construction Industry
See 29 CFR 1926.1101 Asbestos

0.1 fiber/cm3 TWA

1.0 fiber/cm3 Excursion Limit
(30 minute)

HE1

Lung, stomach, and colon cancer; mesothelioma

HE10

Nonmalignant lung disease (asbestosis) and pleural abnormalities (plaques, thickening)

OSHA PEL - Shipyard Employment
See 29 CFR 1915.1001 Asbestos

0.1 fiber/cm3 TWA

1.0 fiber/cm3 Excursion Limit
(30 minute)

HE1

Lung, stomach, and colon cancer; mesothelioma

HE10

Nonmalignant lung disease (asbestosis) and pleural abnormalities (plaques, thickening)

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL)
See Appendix A and Appendix C

Lowest feasible concentration

0.1 fiber/cm3 for fibers >5 µm

Ca

HE1

Lung cancer; mesothelioma

HE10

Asbestosis

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) (2001)

0.1 fiber/cm3 TWA (respirable fibers)

A1

HE1

Lung cancer, mesothelioma

HE10

Asbestosis

CAL/OSHA PELs

0.1 fiber/cm3 TWA

1 fiber/cm3 STEL

HE1

Lung cancer, mesothelioma

HE10

Asbestosis

National Toxicology Program (NTP) carcinogenic classification: Known to be a human carcinogen [138 KB PDF, 3 pages]

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) carcinogenic classification: Group 1 [2 MB PDF, 92 pages] (carcinogenic to humans)

EPA carcinogenic classification: Human carcinogen

EPA Inhalation Reference Concentration (RfC):  Not established

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Inhalation Minimal Risk Level (MRL): Not established

NIOSH Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) concentration: Not listed

Notes on Other Potential Health Effects and Hazards

  1. Occupational exposure to asbestos may increase the risk of ovarian and laryngeal cancer (Camargo et al. 2011; Ramroth et al. 2011; Clin et al. 2011; Harding et al. 2009).
  2. Occupational exposure to asbestos may increase the risk of stroke (Harding et al. 2009).

Date Last Revised: 9/6/2012

Literature Basis

  • ACGIH: Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) - Asbestos, All Forms. 2001.
  • Camargo MC, Stayner LT, Straif K, Reina M, Al-Alem U, Demers PA, Landrigan PJ: Occupational exposure to asbestos and ovarian cancer: a meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect. 119(9):1211-7, September 2011.
  • Clin B, Morlais F, Launoy G, Guizard AV, Dubois B, Bouvier V, Desoubeaux N, Marquignon MF, Raffaelli C, Paris C, Galateau-Salle F, Guittet L, Letourneux M: Cancer incidence within a cohort occupationally exposed to asbestos: a study of dose-response relationships. Occup Environ Med. 68(11):832-6, November 2011.
  • Harding AH, Darnton A, Wegerdt J, McElvenny D: Mortality among British asbestos workers undergoing regular medical examinations (1971-2005). Occup Environ Med. 66(7):487-95, July 2009.
  • NIOSH: Occupational Safety and Health Guideline for Asbestos. 1988.
  • NIOSH/IPCS: International Chemical Safety Cards - Chrysotile. March 22, 1999.
  • NIOSH/IPCS: International Chemical Safety Cards - Crocidolite. November 27, 1998.
  • OSHA: Occupational Exposure to Asbestos. 1994.
  • Ramroth H, Ahrens W, Dietz A, Becher H: Occupational asbestos exposure as a risk factor for laryngeal carcinoma in a population-based case-control study from Germany. Am J Ind Med. 54(7):510-4, July 2011.
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):

  • sampling media: Mixed Cellulose Ester Filter (MCEF) 0.8 microns (open face) 25 mm cassette with 50 mm conductive cowl
    maximum volume: 2400 Liters
    maximum flow rate: 5.0 L/min (Maritime only); 2.5 L/min (General Industry and Construction)
    minimum flow rate: 0.5 L/min (TWA)
    minimum volume: 48 Liters
    maximum flow rate: 5.0 L/min
    minimum flow rate: 1.6 L/min (30 min Excursion Limit)
    current analytical method: Phase Contrast Microscopy; PCM
    method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA ID-160)
    method classification: Fully Validated
    note: Do not request multiple analytes. Do not overload. If dust is high, reduce air volume to avoid overloading. A minimum of 2 blanks or 10% of the number of samples are required for every set.

Wipe Sampling Method:

  • note: Do not use Whatman or other paper filters. Bulk preferred.

Bulk Method:

  • sampling media: Bulk Samples
    current analytical method: Polarized Light Microscopy; PLM
    method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA ID-191)
    note: Collect sample in a 20 mL scintillation vial. Do not ship bulk samples with air samples.
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