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Chemical Sampling Information (CSI)
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General Description

Synonyms: Stibium; Other names vary depending on specific compound

OSHA IMIS Code Number: 0230

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 7440-36-0

NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: CC4025000

Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and 2012 Emergency Response Guidebook [4 MB PDF, 392 pages]: 1549 157 (inorganic compounds, n.o.s.); 2871 170 (powder); 3141 157 (inorganic liquid compounds, n.o.s.)

NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Antimony: Physical description, chemical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Hazard Summary - Antimony Compounds: Uses, sources, potential exposure, acute and chronic health hazard information, and more

Exposure Limits and Health Effects

Exposure Limit

Limit Values

HE Codes

Health Factors and Target Organs

OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) - General Industry
See 29 CFR 1910.1000 Table Z-1

0.5 mg/m3 TWA

HE3

Chronic poisoning, functional disorders of the heart, degeneration of the heart muscle

OSHA PEL - Construction Industry
See 29 CFR 1926.55 Appendix A

0.5 mg/m3 TWA

HE3

Chronic poisoning, functional disorders of the heart, degeneration of the heart muscle

OSHA PEL - Shipyard Employment
See 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards

0.5 mg/m3 TWA

HE3

Chronic poisoning, functional disorders of the heart, degeneration of the heart muscle

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL)

0.5 mg/m3 TWA

HE3

Heart muscle changes, heart disease

HE5

Spontaneous late abortion, premature birth, gynecologic problems

HE10

Pneumoconiosis

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) (2001)

0.5 mg/m3 TWA

HE15

Skin and upper respiratory tract irritation

CAL/OSHA PEL

0.5 mg/m3 TWA

HE15

Upper respiratory tract irritation

National Toxicology Program (NTP) carcinogenic classification: Not listed

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) carcinogenic classification: Group 2B [1 MB PDF, 15 pages] (possibly carcinogenic to humans [antimony trioxide]).

EPA carcinogenic classification: Not listed

EPA Inhalation Reference Concentration (RfC): Not established (antimony); 2 x 10-4 mg/m3 (antimony trioxide)

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Inhalation Minimal Risk Level (MRL): Not established

NIOSH Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) concentration: 50 mg/m3 (as Sb)

Notes on Other Potential Health Effects and Hazards

  1. Finely dispersed particles of antimony can form explosive mixtures in air (NIOSH/IPCS 2006).
  2. EPA has a reference dose (RfD) for ingestion of metallic antimony, which is 0.0004 mg/kg/day (EPA 2000).
  3. The EPA RfC is based on lung toxicity in a 1 year inhalation study in rats.
  4. Various degrees of alteration in pulmonary function have been described in the literature, from bronchospasms and hyperinflation to chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and inactive tuberculosis (ATSDR 1992).
  5. A study that examined port workers in Chile found that those regularly exposed to heavyweight vehicle traffic have higher blood levels of antimony, probably due to the fact that brake pad systems are one of the most important sources of antimony in fine particulate matter today (Quiroz et al. 2009).
  6. A group of Florida firefighters were found to have elevated antimony concentrations in hair due to antimony-containing uniforms. Because urinary antimony levels were within normal ranges, however, it is believed that wearing such uniforms is not a risk factor for antimony toxicity (de Perio et al. 2010).
  7. The relative order of toxicity of antimony compounds (from most to least toxic) is metallic antimony, antimony trisulfide, antimony pentasulfide, antimony trioxide, and antimony pentoxide (ACGIH 1966).
  8. A chronic study of Fischer 344 rats exposed to antimony trioxide indicated a NOAEL of 0.51 mg/m3 (Newton et al. 1994).
  9. An inhalation study of rats showed an increased incidence of lung neoplasms (tumors) in females exposed to antimony trioxide or antimony ore concentrate. None of the male rats in the control or treated groups or the female controls developed lung neoplasms (Groth et al. 1986).

Literature Basis:

  • ACGIH: Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) - Antimony and Compounds. 2001.
  • ATSDR: Toxicological Profile for Antimony and Compounds [2 MB PDF, 160 pages]. September 1992.
  • de Perio, MA., Durgam, S., Caldwell, KL. and Eisenberg, J.: A health hazard evaluation of antimony exposure in fire fighters. J Occup Environ Med. 52(1): 81-84, 2010.
  • EPA: Air Toxics Website - Antimony Compounds. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network, 2000.
  • EPA Antimony trioxide (CASRN 1309-64-4), 1995.
  • Groth, DH., Stettlerb, LE., Burgb, JR., Buseyc, WM., Grant, JC., and Wong L.: Carcinogenic effects of antimony trioxide and antimony ore concentrate in rats. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 18(4): 607-626, 1986.
  • Newton, PE., Bolte HF., Daly, IW., et al.: Subchronic and chronic inhalation toxicity of antimony trioxide in the rat. Fund. Appl. Toxicol. 22: 561-576, 1994.
  • NIOSH: Occupational Safety and Health Guideline - Antimony and its Compounds (as Sb). 1988.
  • NIOSH/IPCS: International Chemical Safety Cards - Antimony. October 12, 2006.
  • Quiroz, W., et al.: Heavy weight vehicle traffic and its relationship with antimony content in human blood. J Environ Monit. 11(5): 1051-1055. 2009.

Date Last Revised: 10/3/2012

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:

  • sampling media: Mixed Cellulose Ester Filter (MCEF) 0.8 microns
    maximum volume: 960 Liters
    minimum volume: 480 Liters
    maximum flow rate: 2.0 L/min
    current analytical method: Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy; AAS
    current method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA ID-121)
    current method classification: Fully Validated
    alternative analytical method: Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma; ICP/AES
    alternative method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA ID-125G and OSHA ID-206)
    alternative method classification: Fully Validated
    note: If the filter is not overloaded, samples may be collected up to an 8-hour period.

Wipe Sampling Method:

  • sampling media: Whatman smear tab Filter
    analytical solvent: Distilled water

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