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4-Aminopyridine

General Description

  • Synonyms: 4-pyridinamine; Avitrol
  • OSHA IMIS Code Number: A173
  • Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 504-24-5
  • NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: US1750000
  • Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Emergency Response Guidebook: 2671 153
  • Chemical Description and Physical Properties:
    • molecular weight: 94.11
    • molecular formula: C5H6N2
    • boiling point: 273°C
    • melting point: 159°C
  • Incompatibilities: acids

Health Factors

  • Potential Symptoms: Ingestion Acute: disagreeable taste; immediate burning of throat; abdominal discomfort; salivation; restlessness, dizziness, light-headedness, paresthesia, tremor, hyperexcitability, involuntary choreoathetoid movement of extremeties, convulsions; respiratory arrest; metabolic acidosis; cardiac arrhythmias; elevated serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (delayed); Contact Exposure: burns to eyes, skin.
  • Health Effects: Convulsions (HE7); Irritation-Eyes, Throat, Skin---Marked (HE14); Potential liver damage (HE3)
  • Affected Organs: CNS, eyes, skin, liver
  • Notes:
    1. OSHA does not have a PEL for 4-aminopyridine.
    2. 4-Aminopyridine is a potassium channel blocker first used as an avicide (Avitrol) that continues to be studied as an orphan drug (fampridine) in clinical trials for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and chronic spinal cord injury in the hope that it will show sufficient evidence of efficacy to achieve FDA approval for a specific indication.
    3. Most 4-aminopyridine is excreted unchanged in the urine. Its mean terminal half-life in plasma is on the order of 3 to 4 hours.
  • Literature Basis:
    • Hayes, K.C.: The use of 4-aminopyridine (fampridine) in demyelinating disorders. CNS Drug Rev. 10(4): 295-316, 2004.
    • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): 4-Aminopyridine. Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 141-143.
    • Velez, L., Shirazi, F., Goto, C., Shepherd, G. and Roth, B.A.: Opisthotonic posturing with neuromuscular irritability attributable to 4-aminopyridine ingestion by a healthy pediatric patient. Pediatrics 111(1): e82-84, 2003.
  • Date Last Revised: 01/18/2006

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):
  • three-piece cassettes containing two sulfuric acid-treated glass fiber filters separated by a ring
  • analytical solvent: 0.1 N NaOH
  • maximum volume: 240 Liters
  • maximum flow rate: 1.0 L/min
  • current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/NPD
  • method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA PV2143)
  • method classification: Partially Validated

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