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Chemical Sampling Information (CSI)
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General Description

Synonyms: 4-pyridinamine; Avitrol

OSHA IMIS Code Number: A173

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 504-24-5

NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: US1750000

Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Guide: 2671 153

Chemical Description and Physical Properties:

molecular weight: 94.11
molecular formula: C5H6N2
boiling point: 273°C
melting point: 159°C

Incompatibilities: acids

Health Factors

Potential Symptoms: INGES. ACUTE: disagreeable taste; immediate burning of throat; abdominal discomfort; salivation; restlessness, dizziness, light-headedness, paresthesia, tremor, hyperexcitability, involuntary choreoathetoid movement of extremeties, convulsions; respiratory arrest; metabolic acidosis; cardiac arrhythmias; elevated serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (delayed); CONTACT EXPOS.: burns to eyes, skin.

Health Effects: Convulsions (HE7); Irritation-Eyes, Throat, Skin---Marked (HE14); Potential liver damage (HE3)

Affected Organs: CNS, eyes, skin, liver

Notes:

  1. OSHA does not have a PEL for 4-aminopyridine.
  2. 4-Aminopyridine is a potassium channel blocker first used as an avicide (Avitrol) that continues to be studied as an orphan drug (fampridine) in clinical trials for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and chronic spinal cord injury in the hope that it will show sufficient evidence of efficacy to achieve FDA approval for a specific indication.
  3. Most 4-aminopyridine is excreted unchanged in the urine. Its mean terminal half-life in plasma is on the order of 3 to 4 hours.

Literature Basis:

  • Hayes, K.C.: The use of 4-aminopyridine (fampridine) in demyelinating disorders. CNS Drug Rev. 10(4): 295-316, 2004.
  • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): 4-Aminopyridine. Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 141-143.
  • Velez, L., Shirazi, F., Goto, C., Shepherd, G. and Roth, B.A.: Opisthotonic posturing with neuromuscular irritability attributable to 4-aminopyridine ingestion by a healthy pediatric patient. Pediatrics 111(1): e82-84, 2003.

Date Last Revised: 01/18/2006

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):

  • sampling media: three-piece cassettes containing two sulfuric acid-treated glass fiber filters separated by a ring
    analytical solvent: 0.1 N NaOH
    maximum volume: 240 Liters
    maximum flow rate: 1.0 L/min
    current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/NPD
    method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA PV2143)
    method classification: Partially Validated

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