- Synonyms: 3-Chloropropene; 1-Chloro-2-propene; 3-Chloropropylene
- OSHA IMIS Code Number: 0140
- Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 107-05-1
- NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: UC7350000
- Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Emergency Response Guidebook: 1100 131
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Allyl chloride: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more
- OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
- American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) (2010): 1 ppm (3 mg/m3) TWA; 2 ppm (6 mg/m3) STEL; A3
- National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 1 ppm (3 mg/m3) TWA; 2 ppm (6 mg/m3) STEL
- Carcinogenic Classification:
- Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Group C, possible human carcinogen
- International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Group 3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenecity to humans
- NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 250 ppm
- Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, skin, nose, mucous membrane; lacrimation, sneezing, cough, sore throat, labored breathing, pulmonary edema (may be delayed); headache, dizziness, weakness; tingling sensation, coldness, numbness in hands and feet; eye redness, pain, blurred vision; in animals: liver, kidney injury; Ingestion acute: Burning sensation, abdominal pain, vomiting.
- Health Effects: Irritation- Eye, Nose, Throat---Marked (HE14); Polyneuropathy (HE7); Liver damage (HE3); Mutagen (HE2).
- Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system, peripheral nervous system, liver, kidneys.
- Vapor/air mixtures of Allyl chloride may be explosive.
- The major urinary metabolite, 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid, has been studied as a biomarker for occupational exposure to Allyl chloride, and an 8-hour biological exposure index of 352 µg/gram creatinine has been proposed. However, garlic consumption may interfere with an accurate determination of occupational exposure.
- This metabolite is not specific for Allyl chloride, as it may also be produced from allyl alcohol, allyl formate (and other allyl esters), allyl nitrate, and acrolein.
- Mechanistic studies of neurochemical changes in rats gavaged with Allyl chloride in corn oil (200 mg/kg, 3 times/week for 12 weeks) indicated toxic effects in the CNS as well as in the peripheral nervous system.
- Date Last Revised: 06/26/2007
- Literature Basis:
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Allyl chloride.
- International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Allyl chloride.
- EPA Air Toxics Website: Allylchloride. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network.
- De Rooij, B.M., Boogaard, P.J., Commandeur, J.N., van Sittert, N.J. and Vermeulen, N.P.: Allylmercapturic acid as urinary biomarker of human exposure to Allyl chloride. Occup. Environ. Med. 54(9): 653-661, 1997.
- He, F.S. and Zhang, S.L.: Effects of Allyl chloride on occupationally exposed subjects. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 11(Suppl. 4): 43-45, 1985.
- Kaye, C.M.: Biosynthesis of mercapturic acids from allyl alcohol, allyl esters and acrolein. Biochem. J. 134(4): 1093-1101, 1973.
- Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Allyl chloride. In, Sittig’s Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 97-100.
- Wang, Q.-S., Song, F., Zhao, X., Hou, L.-Y. and Xie, K.-Q.: Expression changes of apoptic-related proteins in nerve tissues of rats treated with Allyl chloride. Toxicology 231(1): 58-67, 2007.
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA
Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):
- Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
- analytical solvent: Benzene
- alternate analytical solvent: (99:1) Carbon Disulfide/Dimethylformamide
- maximum volume: 100 Liters
- minimum volume: 16 Liters
- maximum flow rate: 1.0 L/min
- current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
- method reference: NIOSH Analytical Method (NIOSH 1000)
- method classification: Fully Validated
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