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Allyl chloride

General Description

  • Synonyms: 3-Chloropropene; 1-Chloro-2-propene; 3-Chloropropylene
  • OSHA IMIS Code Number: 0140
  • Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 107-05-1
  • NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: UC7350000
  • Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Emergency Response Guidebook: 1100 131
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Allyl chloride: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

Exposure Limits

  • OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
  • American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) (2010): 1 ppm (3 mg/m3) TWA; 2 ppm (6 mg/m3) STEL; A3
  • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 1 ppm (3 mg/m3) TWA; 2 ppm (6 mg/m3) STEL

Health Factors

  • Carcinogenic Classification:
  • NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 250 ppm
  • Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, skin, nose, mucous membrane; lacrimation, sneezing, cough, sore throat, labored breathing, pulmonary edema (may be delayed); headache, dizziness, weakness; tingling sensation, coldness, numbness in hands and feet; eye redness, pain, blurred vision; in animals: liver, kidney injury; Ingestion acute: Burning sensation, abdominal pain, vomiting.
  • Health Effects: Irritation- Eye, Nose, Throat---Marked (HE14); Polyneuropathy (HE7); Liver damage (HE3); Mutagen (HE2).
  • Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system, peripheral nervous system, liver, kidneys.
  • Notes:
    1. Vapor/air mixtures of Allyl chloride may be explosive.
    2. The major urinary metabolite, 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid, has been studied as a biomarker for occupational exposure to Allyl chloride, and an 8-hour biological exposure index of 352 µg/gram creatinine has been proposed. However, garlic consumption may interfere with an accurate determination of occupational exposure.
    3. This metabolite is not specific for Allyl chloride, as it may also be produced from allyl alcohol, allyl formate (and other allyl esters), allyl nitrate, and acrolein.
    4. Mechanistic studies of neurochemical changes in rats gavaged with Allyl chloride in corn oil (200 mg/kg, 3 times/week for 12 weeks) indicated toxic effects in the CNS as well as in the peripheral nervous system.
  • Date Last Revised: 06/26/2007
  • Literature Basis:
    • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Allyl chloride.
    • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Allyl chloride.
    • EPA Air Toxics Website: Allylchloride. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network.
    • De Rooij, B.M., Boogaard, P.J., Commandeur, J.N., van Sittert, N.J. and Vermeulen, N.P.: Allylmercapturic acid as urinary biomarker of human exposure to Allyl chloride. Occup. Environ. Med. 54(9): 653-661, 1997.
    • He, F.S. and Zhang, S.L.: Effects of Allyl chloride on occupationally exposed subjects. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 11(Suppl. 4): 43-45, 1985.
    • Kaye, C.M.: Biosynthesis of mercapturic acids from allyl alcohol, allyl esters and acrolein. Biochem. J. 134(4): 1093-1101, 1973.
    • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Allyl chloride. In, Sittig’s Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 97-100.
    • Wang, Q.-S., Song, F., Zhao, X., Hou, L.-Y. and Xie, K.-Q.: Expression changes of apoptic-related proteins in nerve tissues of rats treated with Allyl chloride. Toxicology 231(1): 58-67, 2007.

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):
  • Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
  • analytical solvent: Benzene
  • alternate analytical solvent: (99:1) Carbon Disulfide/Dimethylformamide
  • maximum volume: 100 Liters
  • minimum volume: 16 Liters
  • maximum flow rate: 1.0 L/min
  • current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
  • method reference: NIOSH Analytical Method (NIOSH 1000)
  • method classification: Fully Validated

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