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Chemical Sampling Information (CSI)
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General Description

Synonyms: Propenenitrile; AN; Vinyl cyanide

OSHA IMIS Code Number: 0120

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 107-13-1

NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: AT5250000

Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Guide: 1093 131P

NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Acrylonitrile: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more.

Exposure Limits

OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):

General Industry: 29 CFR 1910.1000 Z-1 Table -- 2 ppm TWA; 10 ppm Ceiling (15 minute); 1 ppm Action Level

Construction Industry: 29 CFR 1926.55 Appendix A -- 2 ppm TWA; 10 ppm Ceiling (15 minute); 1 ppm Action Level

Maritime: 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards -- 2 ppm TWA; 10 ppm Ceiling (15 minute); 1 ppm Action Level

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 2 ppm, 4 mg/m3 TWA; Skin; Appendix A3 (Confirmed Animal Carcinogen with Unknown Relevance to Humans)

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL):1 ppm TWA; 10 ppm Ceiling (15 minutes); Skin; Appendix A - Potential Occupational Carcinogen

Health Factors

Carcinogenic Classification:

National Toxicology Program (NTP): Reasonably Anticipated to be a Human Carcinogen [105 KB PDF, 3 pages]

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Group 2B, possibly carcinogenic to humans [384 KB PDF, 171 pages]

NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 85 ppm

Potential Symptoms: Asphyxia; limb weakness, dyspnea, burning sensation in the throat; dizziness and impaired judgment; cyanosis and nausea; collapse, irregular breathing, seizures, cardiac arrest; low grade anemia, leukocytosis, and mild jaundice; eye irritation; headache; sneezing; skin blisters, scaling dermatitis; (carcinogenic)

Health Effects: Reproductive Hazards (HE5); CNS Disturbances (HE7); Chronic (Cumulative) Toxicity; Asphyxiant (HE17); LD50 (oral, rat) 82 mg/kg

Affected organs: Cardiovascular system, liver, CNS, skin, lung and bowel; blood, respiratory system, and eyes

Note: Partially metabolized to cyanide by cytochrome P450-2E1.

Literature Basis:

  • (low grade anemia, leukocytosis, kidney irritation, and mild jaundice)
    Cohrssen, B.: Cyanides and nitriles (Chapter 61). In Patty's Toxicology, 5th Ed., Vol. 4, Bingham, E., Cohrssen, B., and Powell, C.H., eds. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., pp. 1400-1404, 2001.
  • (dyspnea, burning sensation in the throat, impaired judgement, death.)
    Mangipudy, R.S., and Mehendale, M.H. Acrylonitrile. In Encyclopedia of Toxicology, Vol. 1, Wexler, P. ed. New York: Academic Press, pp. 27-28, 1998.
  • (convulsion and hysterical)
    Sitting, M.: Acrylonitrile. Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, 3rd Ed. Vol. 1, pp. 52-54, 1991.
  • (metabolism)
    Their, R., Balkenhol, H., Lewalter, J., Selinski, S., Dommermuth, A. and Bolt, H.M. Influence of polymorphisms of the human glutathione transferases and cytochrome P450 2E1 enzyme on the metabolism and toxicity of ethylene oxide and acrylonitrile. Mutation Res. 482(1-2): 41-46, 2001.

Date Last Revised: 12/28/2001

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):

  • sampling media: Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
    analytical solvent: Acetone
    maximum volume: 20 Liters
    maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min TWA
    minimum time: 15 minutes
    maximum flow rate: 0.5 L/min Ceiling
    current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/NPD
    method reference:OSHA Manual of Analytical Methods (OSHA 37)
    method classification: Fully Validated

On-Site Sampling Techniques/Methods:

  • device: Detector Tube
    manufacturer: Dräger
    model/type: Acrylonitrile 5/b, order no. CH 26901
    sampling information: 3 strokes
    upper measurement limit: 30 ppm
    detection limit: approximately 1 ppm
    overall uncertainty: 25%
    method reference:on-site air secondary (manufacturer)

  • device: Detector Tube
    manufacturer: AUER/MSA
    model/type: Acrylonitrile-0.5, MSA P/N 10016376, AUER P/N 10016376
    sampling information: follow manufacturer's instructions
    upper measurement limit: 30 ppm
    detection limit: approximately 1 ppm
    overall uncertainty: unknown
    method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)

  • device: Detector Tube
    manufacturer: Matheson-Kitagawa
    model/type: 8014-128SC
    sampling information: follow manufacturer's instructions
    upper measurement limit: 120 ppm
    detection limit: approximately 1 ppm
    overall uncertainty: unknown
    method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)

  • device: Detector Tube
    manufacturer: Gastec
    model/type: 191L
    sampling information:1 to 4 strokes
    upper measurement limit: 18 ppm
    detection limit: 0.05 ppm
    overall uncertainty:16.4% for 0.25 to 1 ppm, 8.2% for 1 to 6 ppm
    method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)

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