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Acrylonitrile

General Description

  • Synonyms: Propenenitrile; AN; Vinyl cyanide
  • OSHA IMIS Code Number: 0120
  • Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 107-13-1
  • NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: AT5250000
  • Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Emergency Response Guidebook: 1093 131P
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Acrylonitrile: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more.

Exposure Limits

  • OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
  • American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 2 ppm, 4 mg/m3 TWA; Skin; Appendix A3 (Confirmed Animal Carcinogen with Unknown Relevance to Humans)
  • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL):1 ppm TWA; 10 ppm Ceiling (15 minutes); Skin; Appendix A - Potential Occupational Carcinogen

Health Factors

  • Carcinogenic Classification:
  • NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 85 ppm
  • Potential Symptoms: Asphyxia; limb weakness, dyspnea, burning sensation in the throat; dizziness and impaired judgment; cyanosis and nausea; collapse, irregular breathing, seizures, cardiac arrest; low grade anemia, leukocytosis, and mild jaundice; eye irritation; headache; sneezing; skin blisters, scaling dermatitis; (carcinogenic)
  • Health Effects: Reproductive Hazards (HE5); CNS Disturbances (HE7); Chronic (Cumulative) Toxicity; Asphyxiant (HE17); LD50 (oral, rat) 82 mg/kg
  • Affected organs: Cardiovascular system, liver, CNS, skin, lung and bowel; blood, respiratory system, and eyes
  • Note: Partially metabolized to cyanide by cytochrome P450-2E1.
  • Literature Basis:
    • (low grade anemia, leukocytosis, kidney irritation, and mild jaundice) Cohrssen, B.: Cyanides and nitriles (Chapter 61). In Patty's Toxicology, 5th Ed., Vol. 4, Bingham, E., Cohrssen, B., and Powell, C.H., eds. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., pp. 1400-1404, 2001.
    • (dyspnea, burning sensation in the throat, impaired judgement, death.) Mangipudy, R.S., and Mehendale, M.H. Acrylonitrile. In Encyclopedia of Toxicology, Vol. 1, Wexler, P. ed. New York: Academic Press, pp. 27-28, 1998.
    • (convulsion and hysterical) Sitting, M.: Acrylonitrile. Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, 3rd Ed. Vol. 1, pp. 52-54, 1991.
    • (metabolism) Their, R., Balkenhol, H., Lewalter, J., Selinski, S., Dommermuth, A. and Bolt, H.M. Influence of polymorphisms of the human glutathione transferases and cytochrome P450 2E1 enzyme on the metabolism and toxicity of ethylene oxide and acrylonitrile. Mutation Res. 482(1-2): 41-46, 2001.
  • Date Last Revised: 12/28/2001

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):
  • Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
  • analytical solvent: Acetone
  • maximum volume: 20 Liters
  • maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min TWA
  • minimum time: 15 minutes
  • maximum flow rate: 0.5 L/min Ceiling
  • current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/NPD
  • method reference: OSHA Manual of Analytical Methods (OSHA 37)
  • method classification: Fully Validated
On-Site Sampling Techniques/Methods:
  • Detector Tube
  • manufacturer: Dräger
  • model/type: Acrylonitrile 5/b, order no. CH 26901
  • sampling information: 3 strokes
  • upper measurement limit: 30 ppm
  • detection limit: approximately 1 ppm
  • overall uncertainty: 25%
  • method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)
  • Detector Tube
  • manufacturer: AUER/MSA
  • model/type: Acrylonitrile-0.5, MSA P/N 10016376, AUER P/N 10016376
  • sampling information: follow manufacturer's instructions
  • upper measurement limit: 30 ppm
  • detection limit: approximately 1 ppm
  • overall uncertainty: unknown
  • method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)
  • Detector Tube
  • manufacturer: Matheson-Kitagawa
  • model/type: 8014-128SC
  • sampling information: follow manufacturer's instructions
  • upper measurement limit: 120 ppm
  • detection limit: approximately 1 ppm
  • overall uncertainty: unknown
  • method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)
  • Detector Tube
  • manufacturer: Gastec
  • model/type: 191L
  • sampling information: 1 to 4 strokes
  • upper measurement limit: 18 ppm
  • detection limit: 0.05 ppm
  • overall uncertainty: 16.4% for 0.25 to 1 ppm, 8.2% for 1 to 6 ppm
  • method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)

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