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Acetic Anhydride

General Description

  • Synonyms: Ethanoic anhydride; Acetic acid anhydride; Acetyl oxide
  • OSHA IMIS Code Number: 0030
  • Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 108-24-7
  • NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: AK1925000
  • Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Emergency Response Guidebook: 1715 137
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Acetic Anhydride: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

Exposure Limits

  • OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
  • American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 15 ppm, 21 mg/m3 TWA
  • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 5 ppm, 20 mg/m3 Ceiling

Health Factors

  • NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 200 ppm
  • Potential Symptoms: Conjunctivitis, lacrimation, corneal edema, burns, opacity, photophobia; burning sensation in nose and throat; cough, dyspnea, bronchitis, pulmonary edema; skin burns, blisters, dermatitis, sensitization. Death can occur from circulatory collapse (shock), asphyxia due to glottic edema or from damage to respiratory system.
  • Health Effects: Irritation-Eye, Nose, Throat, Skin---Marked (HE14); Acute Cardiorespiratory Toxicity (HE4); LD50 (oral, rat) 1780 mg/kg
  • Affected Organs: Respiratory system, eyes, skin
  • Notes: Eyes affected by ≥0.36mg/m3

Date Last Revised: 10/16/2001

Literature Basis:

  • (eyes affected by 0.36mg/ m3) Wagner, F.S., Jr.: Acetic anhydride. In: Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 4th Ed., Vol. 1. New York: John Wiley and Sons, pp.142-154, 1991.
  • (death from inhalation) Sinclair, J.S., McManus, D.T., O'Hara, M.D. and Millar, R.: Fatal inhalation injury following an industrial accident involving acetic anhydride. Burns 20(5): 469-470, 1994.

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):
  • Two Coated Glass Fiber Filters (37 mm) Coating is 10 mg Veratryamine and 10 mg di-n-octylphthalate.
  • analytical solvent: (50:50) Isopropanol:Toluene
  • maximum volume: 7.5 Liters
  • maximum flow rate: 0.05 L/min
  • current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/NPD
  • method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA 102)
  • method classification: Fully Validated
  • note: Store filters under refrigeration and use within 1 month. Small interfering peaks start appearing after that time.
On-Site Sampling Technique/Method:
  • Detector Tube
  • manufacturer: Gastec
  • model type: Acetic Acid Tube 81
  • sampling information: 1 stroke
  • upper measuremnet limit: 15 ppm
  • detection limit: approximately 0.3 ppm
  • overall uncertainty: 16.4%
  • method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)

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