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Acenaphthene

General Description

  • Synonyms: 1,2-Dihydroacenaphthylene; 1,8-Ethylenenaphthalene; peri-Ethylenenaphthalene; Naphthyleneethylene
  • OSHA IMIS Code Number: A180
  • Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 83-32-9
  • NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: AB1000000
  • Chemical Description and Physical Properties:
    • white to beige crystals
    • molecular formula: C12H10
    • molecular weight: 154.22
    • boiling point: 279°C
    • flash point: 135°C open cup
    • melting point: 95°C
    • vapor pressure: 0.3 Pa at 25°C

Health Factors

Carcinogenic Classification:

  • Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, skin, respiratory system; cough, wheezing, shortness of breath; bronchitis; INGES. ACUTE: Vomiting; in animals: kidney, liver damage.
  • Health Effects: Effects on human health are unknown
  • Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system, liver
  • Notes:
  1. OSHA does not have a PEL for acenaphthene.
  2. EPA's oral reference dose (daily oral exposure likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime) of acenaphthene is 0.06 mg/kg/day.
  3. In addition to being a component of coal tar pitch volatiles and oil products (e.g., bitumen in asphalt), acenaphthene is also one of the VOCs generated by the heating of cooking oils, such as lard, soybean oil, and rape-seed (canola) oil.
  4. A vehicle-dependent (acetone vs. lubricating oil) rate of skin penetration by acenaphthene has been demonstrated in vitro.
  5. Pathological effects reported in rats that inhaled acenaphthene (12 mg/m3) 4 hours/day, 6 days/week for five months included desquamation of alveolar epithelial cells, focal bronchitis, and widespread cell proliferation of the bronchial epithelium, but no signs of malignancy.
  6. The major urinary metabolite of acenaphthene in rats after oral administration was reported to be the anhydride of naphthalene-1,8-dicarboxylic acid.

Date Last Revised: 04/05/2007

Literature Basis:

  • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Acenaphthene.
  • U.S. EPA Integrated Risk Information System: Acenaphthene (CASRN 83-32-9).
  • Chang, Z.H. and Young, Z.: The metabolism of acenaphthene in the rat. J. Biol. Chem. 151: 87, 1943.
  • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Acenaphthene. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 19-20.
  • Reshetyuk, A.L., Talakina, E.I. and En'yakova, P.A.: Toxicological evaluation of acenaphthene and acenaphthylene [Russian]. Gig. Tr. Prof. Zabol. 14(6): 46-47, 1970.
  • Sartorelli, P., Cenni, A., Matteucci, G., Montomoli, L., Novelli, M.T. and Palmi, S.: Dermal exposure assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: in vitro percutaneous penetration from lubricating oil. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 72(8): 528-532, 1999.
  • Zhu, L. and Wang, J.: Sources and patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution in kitchen air, China. Chemosphere 50(5): 611-618, 2003.

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):
  • Filter + Sorbent Tube (37-mm, 2-um, PTFE + washed XAD-2, 100 mg/50mg)
  • maximum volume: 1000 Liters
  • maximum flow rate: 2 L/min
  • current analytical method: High Performance Liquid Chromatography; HPLC/UV/FLU
  • method reference: NIOSH Analytical Method (NIOSH 5506 (PDF))
  • method classification: Partially Validated
  • note: After sampling, transfer filters only to culture tubes; wrap sorbent and culture tube in aluminum foil; and ship at 0°C. Protect from heat and UV light.

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