EPA's oral reference dose (daily oral exposure likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime) of acenaphthene is 0.06 mg/kg/day.
In addition to being a component of coal tar pitch volatiles and oil products (e.g., bitumen in asphalt), acenaphthene is also one of the VOCs generated by the heating of cooking oils, such as lard, soybean oil, and rape-seed (canola) oil.
A vehicle-dependent (acetone vs. lubricating oil) rate of skin penetration by acenaphthene has been demonstrated in vitro.
Pathological effects reported in rats that inhaled acenaphthene (12 mg/m3) 4 hours/day, 6 days/week for five months included desquamation of alveolar epithelial cells, focal bronchitis, and widespread cell proliferation of the bronchial epithelium, but no signs of malignancy.
The major urinary metabolite of acenaphthene in rats after oral administration was reported to be the anhydride of naphthalene-1,8-dicarboxylic acid.
Date Last Revised: 04/05/2007
International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Acenaphthene.
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Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Acenaphthene. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 19-20.
Reshetyuk, A.L., Talakina, E.I. and En'yakova, P.A.: Toxicological evaluation of acenaphthene and acenaphthylene [Russian]. Gig. Tr. Prof. Zabol.14(6): 46-47, 1970.
Sartorelli, P., Cenni, A., Matteucci, G., Montomoli, L., Novelli, M.T. and Palmi, S.: Dermal exposure assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: in vitro percutaneous penetration from lubricating oil. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health72(8): 528-532, 1999.
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