(a) Use and identification of grounded and grounding conductors.
(3) Use of grounding terminals and devices. A grounding terminal or grounding-type device on a receptacle, cord connector, or attachment plug may not be used for purposes other than grounding.
(f) Overcurrent protection. (1) 600 volts, nominal, or less. The following requirements apply to overcurrent protection of circuits rated 600 volts, nominal, or less.
(i) Conductors and equipment shall be protected from overcurrent in accordance with their ability to safely conduct current.
(iv) Overcurrent devices shall be readily accessible to each employee or authorized building management personnel. These overcurrent devices may not be located where they will be exposed to physical damage or in the vicinity of easily ignitable material.
(v) Fuses and circuit breakers shall be so located or shielded that employees will not be burned or otherwise injured by their operation. Handles or levers of circuit breakers, and similar parts that may move suddenly in such a way that persons in the vicinity are likely to be injured by being struck by them, shall be guarded or isolated.
(g) Grounding. Paragraphs (g)(1) [and (g)(4) through (g)(8)] of this section contain grounding requirements for systems, circuits and equipment.
(1) Systems to be grounded. Systems that supply premises wiring shall be grounded as follows:
(ii) Two-wire dc systems operating at over 50 volts through 300 volts between conductors shall be grounded unless:
(A) They supply only industrial equipment in limited areas and are equipped with a ground detector;
(B) They are rectifier-derived from an ac system complying with paragraphs (g)(1)(iii), (g)(1)(iv), and (g)(1)(v) of this section; or
(C) They are fire-alarm circuits having a maximum current of 0.030 amperes;
(iii) AC circuits of less than 50 volts shall be grounded if they are installed as overhead conductors outside of buildings or if they are supplied by transformers and the transformer primary supply system is ungrounded or exceeds 150 volts to ground;
(iv) AC systems of 50 volts to 1000 volts shall be grounded under any of the following conditions, unless exempted by paragraph (g)(1)(v) of this section:
(A) If the system can be so grounded that the maximum voltage to ground on the ungrounded conductors does not exceed 150 volts;
(B) If the system is nominally rated three-phase, four-wire wye connected in which the neutral is used as a circuit conductor;
(C) If the system is nominally rated three-phase, four-wire delta connected in which the midpoint of one phase is used as a circuit conductor; or
(D) If a service conductor is uninsulated;
(v) AC systems of 50 volts to 1000 volts are not required to be grounded under any of the following conditions:
(A) If the system is used exclusively to supply industrial electric furnaces for melting, refining, tempering, and the like;
(B) If the system is separately derived and is used exclusively for rectifiers supplying only adjustable speed industrial drives;
(C) If the system is separately derived and is supplied by a transformer that has a primary voltage rating less than 1000 volts, provided all of the following conditions are met:
(1) The system is used exclusively for control circuits;
(2) The conditions of maintenance and supervision ensure that only qualified persons will service the installation;
(3) Continuity of control power is required; and
(4) Ground detectors are installed on the control system;
(D) If the system is an isolated power system that supplies circuits in health care facilities; or
(E) If the system is a high-impedance grounded neutral system in which a grounding impedance, usually a resistor, limits the ground-fault current to a low value for 3-phase ac systems of 480 volts to 1000 volts provided all of the following conditions are met:
(1) The conditions of maintenance and supervision ensure that only qualified persons will service the installation;
(2) Continuity of power is required;
(3) Ground detectors are installed on the system; and
(4) Line-to-neutral loads are not served.
(4) Grounding connections. (i) For a grounded system, a grounding electrode conductor shall be used to connect both the equipment grounding conductor and the grounded circuit conductor to the grounding electrode. Both the equipment grounding conductor and the grounding electrode conductor shall be connected to the grounded circuit conductor on the supply side of the service disconnecting means or on the supply side of the system disconnecting means or overcurrent devices if the system is separately derived.
(ii) For an ungrounded service-supplied system, the equipment grounding conductor shall be connected to the grounding electrode conductor at the service equipment. For an ungrounded separately derived system, the equipment grounding conductor shall be connected to the grounding electrode conductor at, or ahead of, the system disconnecting means or overcurrent devices.
(iii) On extensions of existing branch circuits that do not have an equipment grounding conductor, grounding-type receptacles may be grounded to a grounded cold water pipe near the equipment * * *. When any element of this branch circuit is replaced, the entire branch circuit shall use an equipment grounding conductor that complies with all other provisions of paragraph (g) of this section.
(5) Grounding path. The path to ground from circuits, equipment, and enclosures shall be permanent, continuous, and effective.
(6) Supports, enclosures, and equipment to be grounded.
(iv) Exposed noncurrent-carrying metal parts of fixed equipment that may become energized shall be grounded under any of the following conditions:
(A) If within 2.44 m (8 ft) vertically or 1.52 m (5 ft) horizontally of ground or grounded metal objects and subject to employee contact;
(B) If located in a wet or damp location and not isolated;
(C) If in electrical contact with metal;
(D) If in a hazardous (classified) location;
(vi) Exposed noncurrent-carrying metal parts of cord- and plug-connected equipment that may become energized shall be grounded under any of the following conditions:
(A) If in hazardous (classified) locations (see §1910.307);
(B) If operated at over 150 volts to ground, except for guarded motors and metal frames of electrically heated appliances if the appliance frames are permanently and effectively insulated from ground;
(C) If the equipment is of the following types:
(1) Refrigerators, freezers, and air conditioners;
(2) Clothes-washing, clothes-drying, and dishwashing machines, sump pumps, and electric aquarium equipment;
(3) Hand-held motor-operated tools, stationary and fixed motor-operated tools, and light industrial motor-operated tools;
(4) Motor-operated appliances of the following types: hedge clippers, lawn mowers, snow blowers, and wet scrubbers;
(5) Cord- and plug-connected appliances used in damp or wet locations, or by employees standing on the ground or on metal floors or working inside of metal tanks or boilers;
(6) Portable and mobile X-ray and associated equipment;
(7) Tools likely to be used in wet and conductive locations; and
(8) Portable hand lamps.
(7) Nonelectrical equipment. The metal parts of the following nonelectrical equipment shall be grounded: frames and tracks of electrically operated cranes and hoists; frames of nonelectrically driven elevator cars to which electric conductors are attached; hand-operated metal shifting ropes or cables of electric elevators; and metal partitions, grill work, and similar metal enclosures around equipment of over 750 volts between conductors.
(8) Methods of grounding fixed equipment. (i) Noncurrent-carrying metal parts of fixed equipment, if required to be grounded by this subpart, shall be grounded by an equipment grounding conductor that is contained within the same raceway, cable, or cord, or runs with or encloses the circuit conductors. For dc circuits only, the equipment grounding conductor may be run separately from the circuit conductors.
|Current Version: Subpart S - §1910.304||Standard text as of: 12/21/2007|