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Safety and Health Regulations for Construction
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
U.S. Department of Labor

Subpart D - Occupational Health and Environmental Controls. General and specific components of a safety and health program cover a wide range of topics from first aid and lighting to chemical exposures and radiation.

Medical Services and First Aid. Medical services must be reasonably accessible through a trained first aid person and/or the local emergency responder (in non-911 areas the telephone numbers must be posted), first aid supplies must be in a waterproof container with individually sealed packages for each item, facilities to flush eyes or bodies exposed to corrosive materials, and a system to provide prompt emergency transportation. Arrangements for medical services and first aid are to be made prior to the start of a project.

Sanitation. An adequate supply of drinking water and cups must be provided. Toilets must be provided except to mobile crews having transportation available to nearby facilities.

Occupational Noise Exposure. Administrative or engineering controls must be used to reduce excessive noise exposure. A hearing conservation program is required if sound levels exceed the permissible exposures. Hearing protection must be provided when sound levels exceed the permissible level.

Ionizing and Nonionizing Radiation. Employers must protect against occupational exposure to radiation. Only competent and trained persons can use equipment that involves radioactive materials or X-rays. Laser equipment operators must have proof of qualification. Signs, safety equipment and safe practices must be utilized with lasers.

Airborne Contaminants. Administrative or engineering controls must be used if feasible to avoid employee exposure to airborne contaminants. Approved protective equipment must be used if administrative or engineering controls are not feasible. Ventilation systems must be effective and safe. OSHA specifies the controls and protective equipment that must be used in abrasive blasting; grinding, polishing, and buffing operations; spray finishing operations; and open surface tanks.

Illumination. Illumination requirements range from 3 to 5 foot-candles for general construction areas and 10 to 30 foot -candles for on-site shops and first aid stations and offices.

Hazard Communication. A written hazard communication program is required, in writing, that includes training, labeling, and the availability and use of Material Safety Data Sheets.

Methylenedianiline (MDA). Employers must: have written plans for emergency situations, provide training, monitor exposure, establish and mark regulated areas where exposures can occur, and provide personal protective equipment. They must provide decontamination areas and keep work areas as clear of MDA as possible. Information must be shared with other contractors. Employers must provide a medical surveillance program include initial and subsequent periodic examinations.

DOT Marking, Placards and Labels. Any package, freight container, or vehicle that has a DOT marking, placard or label is required to keep that marking in place until the hazardous materials are removed or no longer present a hazard.

Lead. Employers must conduct an initial exposure assessment and implement engineering and work practice controls to keep exposure at or below the PEL. These methods should be supplemented, if necessary to achieve compliance, with respiratory and other clothing protection. Programs must be written and hygienic facilities and practices must be maintained. Monitoring, medical surveillance, and recordkeeping are required.

Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals. The contract employer working on-site must be informed of the hazards by the host employer and train each of the employees in the safe work practices for that project. The safety and health procedures of the host employer as well as those of the contractor must be followed.

Hazardous waste operations and emergency response. Written safety and health programs for hazardous waste operations are required. Training, medical surveillance, engineering controls, work practices and personal protective equipment are included in the standard.

Criteria for design and construction of spray booths. OSHA has specific regulations covering spray booths, electrical and other sources of ignition, ventilation, fixed electrostatic apparatus, electrostatic hand spraying equipment, and drying curing or fusion apparatus.