Archive Notice - OSHA Archive

NOTICE: This is an OSHA Archive Document, and no longer represents OSHA Policy. It is presented here as historical content, for research and review purposes only.

Safety & Health Guide for the Chemical Industry

U.S. Department of Labor
William E. Brock, Secretary

Occupational Safety and Health Administration John A. Pendergrass, Assistant Secretary
1986

OSHA 3091

Material contained in this publication is in the public domain and may be reproduced, fully or partially, without permission of the Federal Government. Source credit is requested but not required. Permission is required only to reproduce any copyrighted material contained herein.

Introduction

More than two thousand deaths from a methyl isocyanate chemical leak in Bhopal, India, drew world attention to serious hazards in the chemical industry. Following that tragedy, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) developed guidelines to aid emplioyers in reducing the number of potential hazards in chemical industries. This publication is designed to encourage chemical industry review and safety precautions to guard against chemical disasters. It contains guidelines used by OSHA compliance officers to evaluate employer safety programs, particularly in the areas of disaster prevention and emergency response. It also includes two lists of acutely toxic chemicals whose presence in the workplace should signal the need for safety and health measures to protect workers.

The guidelines are aimed at the conditions and processes found in the "chemical industry," inciuding (but not limited to) firms in SICs 28 and 29. However, they are written to be used in a wide spectrum of workplaces which produce industrial and consumer chemical products. OSHA also publishes a manual called "How to Prepare for Workplace Emergencies" which can help any type of business in developing an emergency plan. A free copy may be obtained from any OSHA area office.

Disaster Prevention

There are three tasks to perform before any meaningful analysis of an emergency response system can begin. The first The first task is to identify the key processes and elements of the production process and to understand how operational processes are kept within safe bounds under normal conditions. Conceptually, it is the normal process instrumentation and control measures that provide the first and greatest degree of protection to plant employees and to the public. The four areas listed below identify some major subsystems or components which are commonly found in chemical plants. Each has a bearing on the safety of operations under normal and emergency conditions.
  1. A management subsystem which includes management personnel, process specifications, plant design, standard operating procedures, and the written emergency plan.

  2. A personnel subsystem which assigns and defines roles, for both normal and emergency operations, and provides appropriate training. This may also include labor/management safety committees.

  3. A physical subsystem which may include transportation systems for materials, ventilation systems, waste removal systems, containment systems, refrigeration systems, storage areas, communications systems, and other process related equipment

  4. An emergency services subsystem including plant and community components.
A second task is to understand how critical failure points are identified, and what controls are used to ensure safe operations. This involves assessing the interrelation of the components and, particularly, identifying which safety features in the system should be backed up with alternative instrumentation, procedures, or equipment designed to ensure process variables are kept within safe limits.

The third task is to identify the emergency response system that is embedded in the operating system. Conceptually, it is a latent system that is active only when preventative measures have failed and an incident has occurred. This system is the most difficult to evaluate because:
  1. It is not observable except in emergencies.

  2. The emergency response system also may involve resources and subsystems that lie wholly or partially outside of the physical or managerial boundaries of the chemical plant. For example, local firefighters may supplement in-plant fire brigades; local hospitals may provide care to injured workers in addition to in-plant first aid; local police may be involved with traffic control, evacuating of workers and community, and expediting communications and the flow of emergency and rescue equipment.

  3. Finally, there is the question of defining the point at which the emergency system "shuts down" and normal operations begin after an emergency.
Plant Management

All the planning and preparation of safe plant operation is meaningless, unless it can be implemented. In the event of a problem, there is no time for committee or front office decisions. Correct decisions have to be made at the lowest organizational level possible, and those decisions have to be communicated to other affected personnel. This section is intended to establish whether those elements have been considered in the program.
  1. Who is in charge? What are the lines of authority under normal operating conditions? in transition times, like during startup and shutdown procedures? In emergencies?

  2. Can information be transmitted quickly and easily from: worker to supervisor? supervisor to worker?

    Information transfer
  3. How is information exchange accomplished during transition periods (starting and stopping work)?
  4. Is operator jargon commonly and completely understood by those affected by the jargon? Examples: MIC -- methyl isocyanate, Black Betsy -- boiler, Monitor -- stationary firefighting nozzles.

  5. Are signals clear? Are audible signals distinguishable and understood?

  6. How has management with requirements of the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200)? Are monitoring records, training records, and material safety data sheets available?

  7. Standard operating procedures should be examined and discussed. The process of updating these procedures -- including modifications, communication, and training -- should be understood.

  8. Does a written emergency plan exist? It be discussed with management. It should be understood which contingencies are included in the plan, why they are included, and why management considers them to be adequate for the process, site, and situation.
The Personnel Subsystem
  1. What are the job classifications of employees who work at the site? Are all job titles present on all work shifts? Are there potentially crucial omissions?

  2. Are employees aware of their roles during emergencies? Are all critical tasks represented on all shifts?

  3. Who is responsible for training employees? How often is training provided covering standard operating procedures? Emergency procedures? How is effectiveness of training evaluated by management?
The Physical Subsystem.

It is obviously to see the physical plant and to relate information contained in operating procedures, emergency plans, and "blueprints" with actual structures, materials, and processes. In inspecting the physical plant, the underlying question is "What keeps this operation -- or this phase of the operation -- within safe limits, including mechanical and electronic systems, human intervention, and routine maintenance activity?" Particular attention should be given to:

Plant Layout

Plant layout has some specific safety aspects.
Examples include:
  1. Separation and isolation

    • Chemicals which may react with one another are to be physically separated, oxidizers are to be stored in areas remote from fuel storage.

    • Areas of potential explosions storage of explosives, reaction vessels) are to be isolated so if there is an explosion, the damage and risk to employees is minimized.

  2. Drainage

    • Where hazardous liquids may leak or spill from piping or vessels, what provisions are made to prevent their spread to areas where employees may be exposed to the hazard? Examples of possible methods include diking and grading.

    • Has the company made any provisions to control unexpected hazardous vapor or gas releases within the drain lines?

  3. Housekeeping

    • Are work areas well maintained?

  4. Enclosed spaces

    • Some processes which are safe in open air may become hazardous if enclosed. If areas of potential or frequent leaks or spills are enclosed to prevent environmental contamination or the spread of the chemicalk, are there adequate precautions to protect employees? Examples include ventilating the room and treating the exhaust; automatically sampling the air in the room or vault; having employees sample before entering the room.
Materials Compatibility

At least two factors should be considered in materials selection: First, will the contaminate or cause a reaction in the chemicals to be handled or processed? Second, will the chemicals to be processed attach or destroy the equipment? For all chemical processes: there are preferred materials; preferences sometimes are economic, and sometimes they arc based on chemical reactivity or compatibility. The intent here is to identify readily available materials that might be used but that are incompatible with the chemicals involved. (For copper tubing should not be used with acetylene because it catalyzee a reaction in the acetylene.) These questions are pertinent to chemicals in all categories (i.e., health, flammability, reactivity). Among questions to be asked are:
  1. Are any metals incompatible with the chemicals so that they should not be used for process equipment, piping, or storage systems?

  2. Are any sealing materials for use in packing (e.g., pumps) or gaskets (e.g., flanges) incompatible with the chemicals so they should not be used in process equipment, piping, or storage systems?

  3. If incompatible materials are identified; what procedures does the company have to ensure that only acceptable materials are used in new or refurbished equipment? Besides purchase order specifications, is there also inspection by plant personnel to ensure the specifications were followed?
Contamination Control

Potentially reactive chemicals may have their reactions catalyzed by common materials which easily enter systems whenever seals are opened. Examples include water or rust which may easily enter a system during transfer from one vessel to another, either during hookup or disconnect, or during pressurizing or venting of tanks.
  1. If such potential catalysts are identified, how are they excluded from the system? Examples include:

    • If vessels are pressurized by inert gases, are there filters in the gas lines to remove solid particles?

    • If vacuum relief or pressure relief valves are on the vessels, how are they protected so potentiaiiy hazardous contaminant can enter through them when open?

  2. When systems are opened for maintenance purposes, what precautions are taken to prevent contamination? What is done to safeguard the system while it is open? What precautions are taken to ensure that replacement parts are free of contaminants incompatible and/or incompatiablematerials? When connections are made and broken (e.g., during transfer from rail cars or trucks), what measures are taken to ensure contaminants do not enter the system?
Physical Facilities

Much plant equipment could be considered ancillary to the production processes. Examples of systems that may need to be present, properly inspected, and functional are:
  1. Emergency eye wash or shower.

  2. Fixed fire suppression equipment.

  3. Portable firefighting equipment, if employees or a fire brigade are to use portable firefighting equipment.
Questions to be asked about these systems include: How often are they tested? What capacity do they have? Is the capacity sufficient for the anticipated emergency?

Inspection and Maintenance

All equipment must be shut down sometime, no matter how infrequently. When safety systems are shut down, what backup systems or procedures are available to provide replacement protection (e.g., stop process until safety systems are available again)? If shutoff valves can isolate safety relief valves, what measures ensure that the system is protected from over-pressurization (e.g., person stationed to monitor pressure)? What system is in place to ensure that maintenance of critical safety features are corrected immediately? What ensures that less critical features are corrected within a reasonable period?

Pressure vessels also need periodic inspection and testing because of normal wear and potential corrosion either at welds or in the base material. The combination of pressure and volume determine the hazard: high volume, low pressure systems can have the same potential energy for release as low volume, high pressure systems.

When potentially corrosive chemicals are used (e.g., acids, caustics), or the plant atmosphere is corrosive (e.g., near the ocean, or from chemical releases within the plant), what measures are taken to ensure system integrity? Examples include periodic pressure testing, x-ray, etc.

General Containment and Controls

During normal operations it is difficult if not impossible to keep material completely in a closed system. Vacuum must be relieved when a liquid level drops, and pressure must be relieved when the tank is refilled. For toxic, flammable, and reactive chemicals, the questions to be asked focus on minimizing such necessary releases and rendering the released chemicals harmless before discharge to the atmosphere. Examples of questions to be pursued include:
  1. Where do emergency relief vents discharge? Are they piped to scrubbers, neutralizers, incinerators, precipitators, etc. to remove hazardous materials?

  2. What precautions are taken to minimize spills when connections are broken? Is the line purged prior to the disconnect? Are purge gases treated? Are quick disconnects used? Do employees wear personal protective equipment (PPE) when disconnecting? Is there a dike or some method to collect and contain small spills or releases? Is the area ventilated and is ventilated air treated?
Material Handling

As long as chemicals are maintained in a closed system, they are safe and harmless. Chemical processes using hazardous chemicals should be designed to maintain that closed system. After design and maintenance, the only potential problems are: introduction of raw into the closed system and the removal of products (either the desired product for shipment or waste) from the closed systems. This section deals with those hazards.
  1. How are raw materials received and shipped?

  2. Are raw materials transfers accomplished in a closed system?

    • Who performs transfer (company or shipper)?

    • Is the system pressurized or blanketed?

    • Do critical systems have connections that are not interchangeable? Examples: potable water wtih process water? water and reactive chemicals? incompatible reactive chemicals?

  3. How are unwanted products disposed of:
    • Vents: are vents properly directed?

    • Flare towers?

    • Scrubbers?

    • Ditches: properly lined? Where do they drain?

    • Tertiary treatment?

    • Are provisions made or considered to preclude incompatible chemical mixing in waste drainage?
Instrumentation

Suitable controls and instruments should be provided for both normal conditions of operation and for emergencies. Instrumentation includes sensors, indicators, recorders, and transmitters for measurements such as temperature, pressure, flow, liquid level, and analysis.

Many self-acting control devices, such as pressure regulators, normally fail in the open position, which may be the unsafe position. In such cases, emergency backup controls should be provided. In the case of pressure regulators, this includes pressure relieving devices down-stream and automatic shutoff valves interlocked with excess pressure switches.
  1. Do instruments and controls consider failure in their design?

    Examples: Control valves should be arranged so that, on loss of instrument air or actuating power, they will go into the safe position. Where loss of instrument air or power could lead to an unsafe condition, emergency air or power supplies should be provided.

  2. Are instruments made of material capable of withstanding the corrosive or erosive conditions to which they are subjected?

  3. Do instrument sensors measure the true status of the system they are designed to protect or control?

  4. Examples: In a large reactor, many thermocouples may be needed since the temperature may not be uniform throughout. In sensing liquid flow through a pipe, a flow switch in the pipe is more reliable than monitoring power supply to a pump.

  5. Are grouped instrument leads and control locations protected against exposure to explosion, fire, or toxic chemicals where they are critically needed to shut down the process safely? In addition to normal controls, are accessible emergency controls provided by which pumps or automatic valves controlling the flow of flammable liquids could be operated in event of fire?

  6. Are all indicating dials, indicating lights, recorders, alarms, and switches which affect process safety conspicuously labeled as to their function and meaning?

  7. Are instruments constructed and installed so that they can be easily inspected and maintained?

  8. Are separate safety control and interlock systems relied upon rather than relying on the production process control system for safety supervision of the process?

  9. Are instruments in hazardous areas (as defined in National Electrical Code) intrinsically safe or or enclosed so that they will not act as ignition sources?

  10. Are critical measurements recorded (as is preferable) rather than merely indicated by lights or dials so that rate of change in processes will be more readily evident, and greater management supervision can be maintained over operator practices?

  11. Do important control valves have steel bodies and are they yoked to withstand fire exposure, impact, and vibration?

  12. How often is routine maintenance or replacement performed on key instruments?
Piping Systems

Piping and instrument diagrams are used to follow the formulation or reaction process and also to check safety devices and system protections. Questions that may be asked include:
  1. Do reaction vessels, storage tanks, or pressure vessels have safety relief devices to prevent over-pressurization?

  2. Are there shutoff valves that can render safety relief devices ineffective? If so, what additional precautions are taken?

  3. Where do materials vent when released through the safety relief devices?

  4. If there is a loss of electrical or pneumatic power, do controls fail in a mode that is safe?

  5. Will instrumentation detect leaks and spills? (E.g., when material is being pumped from one vessel to another, is there any check to assure that as the level falls in one vessel, it rises in the other?)

  6. Are temperature or liquid level controls or alarms provided?

  7. Are piping, valves, and fittings designed according to the recognized standards for the working pressures, temperatures, structural stresses, and chemical conditions to which may be subjected? Is non-destructive testing conducted routinely to ensure that minimum wall thicknesses are maintained?

  8. Is piping well-supported and protected against physical damage?

  9. Are pipe lines for reactive chemicals pitched to drain, with drain valves at low points?

  10. Are main shutoff valves which can affect the safety of the system conspicuously labeled?

  11. Do shutoff valves indicate their "open" or "shut" position?

  12. Where improper operations or leaking of valves can lead to a hazardous situation, are interlocked valves or double valves and vents used to minimize hazard?
Protective Systems (not quality control)
  1. Heating or cooling systems may be for product control or for safety control. Cooling may be necessary to prevent a runaway reaction in reaction vessels. Reactive chemicals also may be cooled in storage to provide more time to respond to an initiated reaction.

    • What protective devices are there for the heating or cooling systems? temperature alarms? backup systems or redundancies? procedural controls?

    • Are heat transfer materials for heating or cooling incompatible with reactive materials?

    • Is refrigeration automatically actuated in emergencies?

    • Are manual valves located in safe areas?

    • Are intermittent power failures considered and backup provisions implemented?

  2. Are there explosion suppression systems? How are they tested and maintained?

  3. Are systems inerted to exclude contaminants which may be catalysts or reactive materials? Examples include:

    • Passivating vessels and piping or components (before system startup).

    • Providing an inert gas atmosphere such as a nitrogen blanket on flammable materials.

    • Submerging reactive materials (such as sodium in kerosene).
Fired Systems

Do furnaces and heaters have:
  1. Adequate draft?

  2. Positive fuel ignition?

  3. Combustion safeguards?

  4. Fuel controls?

  5. Water or liquid level indicators?

  6. Pressure relief devices?

  7. High temperature alarms?

  8. Emergency shutoff facilities?

  9. Backflow protection?
Electrical Equipment

All wiring and electrical equipment in chemical plants must be installed in accordance with the National Electrical Code. Equipment used must be approved where applicable.
  1. Proper installation and maintenance is essential.

  2. Adequate clearance or insulation should be provided between conduits and hot surfaces to prevent damage to the wiring insulation.

  3. Equipment must be properly grounded and/or bonded in hazardous areas to minimize static electricity, both within and outside of equipment. Are other appropriate steps taken to prevent buildup of a static charge?

  4. Equipment should be shielded from lightning by protective ground wires, rods, or masts.
Pressure Vessels and Storage Tanks

The design and construction of pressure vessels and storage tanks must be in accordance with accepted engineering principles.
  1. Pressure vessels must be designed and constructed in accordance with appiicabie codes, standards, state and local laws, and regulations.

    • Vessels should be equipped with overpressure protection as required. Vents should be arranged to discharge to a point where ignition of escaping vapors or liquids will not seriously expose personnel, the equipment, or structures. Relief devices hould be kept free of corrosion or fouling and should be operable at all times.

    • Often an intert atmosphere is maintained in a vessel or tank to keep the atmosphere out of the flammable range. The consequences of contamination or failure to use an inert gas should be analyzed and equipment or procedures should be devised to cover the situation.

    • Unprotected sight glasses should be avoided in process equipment wherever possible.

  2. Storage tanks be designed based on the quantity, pressure, reactivity, and corrosiveness of the material stored. The design should inciude overpressure equipment and vents and should consider the interrelationship of each part of the overall system, e.g., the effect of a gasket which blows out at 25 psi at one point in the system when the relief valves are set at 60 psi.
Pumps and Compressors

Pumps and compressors are the work horses of chemical plants for moving every type of liquid and gas.
  1. Failure of moving parts or packing glands can cause escape of flammable or toxic liquids or gases. Remotely controlled switches and shutoff valves are needed to control the flow of fuel in an emergency.

  2. Equipment used for transfer of flammable vapors or gases should be installed to minimize vibration and thus to avoid loosening of fittings and joints.
Response to Emergencies

General Principles

Assessing the adequacy of a written emergency plan is an art, not a science. It involves judgment as to the reasonableness of the assumptions underlying the plan (e.g., what is a reasonable worst-case estimate?) as well as the adequacy of countermeasures designed to protect life and to limit environmental and property damage.

A few general principles may be useful in approaching this task:
  1. Are the priorities of the plan clearly stated as to -- safety of plant personnel and the public? control of hazard? minimizing damage to property?

  2. Does the plan deal with with reasonable accident scenarios (minor incident to "worst case")?

  3. Is the plan practical?

  4. Is the plan simple?

  5. Is the plan easy to understand?

  6. Will it deal with any type of emergency? For example, are contingencies included for: fire and explosion? release of highly toxic materials? large chemical spills? acts of nature? sabotage including bomb threats, etc.?

  7. Has attention been given to emergencies which may occur during inclement weather?

  8. Is the plan updated periodically, e.g., annually or whenever processes, procedures, or key personnel change?

  9. Are there emergency drills or simulations involving all members of the response team including public agencies?

  10. Are responses reviewed to determine areas where improvement is needed?

  11. How are the results of the drill evaluations communicated to the employees?

  12. Are drills conducted for all shifts?

  13. Are safety responsibilities a "critical element" in supervisors' performance standards? For example, how is safety performance considered relative to production demands and is it factored into performance appraisals?

  14. Has plant management worked with community leaders to develop an appropriate public response plan?
Control and Coordination

When assessing the adequacy of a written emergency plan, questions concerning control and coordination include:
  1. Will one person be designated to coordinate all efforts? Is there always an individual onsite who has been trained and has the ability to take the initial actions necessary to minimize the emergency?

  2. Has there been prior consideration/coordination of all potential response groups or agencies such that there will not be loss of control due over-or underresponse?

  3. Does the the safety committee have oversight relative to the plan? Are employee representatives an integral part of the committee? Are members involved in plant audits? How do they receive feedback on action taken relative to their recommendations?

  4. Has the plan been distrubited to:

    • All key personnel up and down the company chain of command including employee representatives and the switchboard operator?

    • Police officials?

    • Fire officials and paramedics?

    • Local government?

    • Hospitals and physicians?

    • Mutual aid industries?

    • Utility companies?

  5. When changes are made in the emergency plan, have provisions been established to communicate those changes to individuals with a need to know?

  6. What wnat mechanisms exist to allow the reporting of unsafe acts or unathroized employees in high hazard areas?

  7. Will a control center be established in a safe location? Alternatively: are process control centers already established in safe locations, with appropriate architecture and support systems?

  8. Are procedures in place for notifying transient personnel on the site, such as delivery and shipping services, an emergency through the most likely site contacts (e.g., shipping, receiving sections)?
  9. Are emergency rosters and call out plans developed?

  10. Are emergency service listings and phone numbers developed and distributed? Does the switchboard operator have a copy? Do all phones have a brief listing of immediately needed emergency numbers posted on them?

  11. Are organizational charts developed and distributed for day-to-day operators and emergency operators?

  12. Are lists of raw materials, intermediates, products, and their locations within the plant provided with the plan?

    • Are the associated hazardous chemicals listed in accordance with the OSHA Communication Standard?

    • Are flammable, reactive, physical, radioactive, and other hazards listed?

  13. Are appropriate disposal methods listed?

  14. Are current maps, flow diagrams, and blueprints part of the plan? overall site map? adjoining city and/or state maps including local topography?

  15. Will additional security be needed and planned for?
    • Will strict accountability of personnel entering and leaving the area be maintained?

    • Will only authorized personnel be granted entry?

    • Will traffic control be a problem?
    • Are certain areas of the site more vulnerable to sabotage?
Procedures

The questions concerning the procedures set forth in a written emergency include
  1. Are condensed instructions (such as checklists for evacuation or shutdown) part of the written plan?

  2. Are designated duties and alternate duties of each person clearly and briefly described? Are vacations, holidays, weekends, and 2nd and 3rd shift situations considered?

  3. Have procedures been established for employees who remain on site to perform critical operations during emergency situations?

  4. Have responsibilities and procedures been established for those who are assigned rescue or firefighting duties? Are these employees required to take physical examinations which demonstrate their fitness to perform such duties? If so, how frequently are these examinations administered?

  5. If the company has elected to use a fire brigade are the appropriate requirements of 29 CFR 1910.156 being met?

  6. What is the company's position on the use and availability of fire extinguishers?

  7. Are rescue teams formally trained in search and resuce procedures? Are they familiar with the location of utility disconnects and all evacuation routes? Are they provided with appropriate PPE and trained in first aid/emergency medical treatment? Are they provided with communication equipment? Are resuce/response personnel provided with a properly equipped vehicle(s) to reduce response time?

  8. Are documents readily available for reference in an emergency? Are decision logic (decision making) charts (or other eoduments) furmulated for planning and executing the following activities:

    • Selection of protective clothing?

    • Selection of respiratory protection?
    • Emergency shutdown of equipment?

    • Evacuation of the plant?

    • Evacuation of the surrounding populace?

    • How did management arrive at these decisions?
  9. Have definite volumes of air contaminants been established which, when released, trigger either onsite and/or offiste emergencies?

  10. Have dispersion models been calculated to assist in planning of evacuation? If not, how does management deal with a hazard that is sperading into new areas of the plant and the community?

  11. Are employees or recovery personnel trained and are procedures in place for monitoring the site and adjacent areas to identify levels of contaminants as well as their location (atmosphere/land/water) and direction of travel.

  12. Is emergency equipment provided in adequate quantities and placed in useable locations; e.g., emergency power generators for emergency lighting and shutdowns; pumps and valves located for supplying water to fight fires; PPE, safety showers connected to alarms, etc.?

    • Is emergency equipment checked, tested, and calibrated periodically for operational readiness?

    • Are personnel trained and experienced in its use?

    • Is emergency equipment of appropriate type for any emergency which may occur?
  13. Are local emergency response personnel brought into the site periodically for familiarization?

    • Are potential problem areas and processes pointed out and discussed?

    • Are locations where personnel normally work pointed out?

  14. Are primary and backup tow-way communication systems developed and in place? Are they vulnerable to power failure or other disruption? Do ambient plant noise levels interfere with voice communication?

  15. Is mutual aid equipment that might be borrowed in an emergency compatible with site equipment?

  16. Is there a written spill control plan, e.g., containment, neutralization, disposal, appropriate PPE, etc.?

  17. Are incompatibilities of released material anticipated?

  18. Are normally innocuous materials likely to become hazardous due to an emergency? For For example, any materials which are water reactive would influence the method of firefighting; certain materials when heated release hazardous levels of toxic substances not existing during normal conditions, etc.

    Are hospitals, physicians, and other medical/paramedical staff provided with:

    • Lists of hazardous chemicals and Material Safety Data Sheets?

    • Acute symptoms?

    • Delayed symptoms?

    • Bioassay tests?

    • Special treatment required?
  19. Have local health care professionals been involved in the development or review of theplan?

  20. Is public information planned and is one person designated as spokesperson to avoid speculation and panic? coordinated with other responding groups?

  21. Are there formal accident and near-miss investigation responsibilities and procedures developed? What is the policy on investigating injury versus non-injury accidents? Are reports required? Are causal analyses performed?

  22. Has any consideration been given to potential sewer contamination during an emergency/disaster, e.g., introduction of or toxic materials into the system?

Recordkeeping Requirements

The Secretary of Labor has said that "the cornerstone of any successful, effective safety and health program is accurate and complete recordkeeping." Because of its importance, OSHA places special importance on recordkeeping.

Employers of 11 or more employees must maintain records of occupational injuries, illnesses. and deaths as they occur. The purposes of keeping such records are to inform employees of the effectiveness of their employer's safety and health program, to permit the Bureau of Labor Statistics
to complete survey material, and to help define hazardous industries.

In addition, while the following items are not required for all OSHA standards, they should be recorded to accurately monitor and assess occupational hazards.
Initial and periodic monitoring, including the date of measurement, operation involving exposure, sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy: number, duration, and results of samples taken: type of respiratory protective devices worn: and name, social security number, and the results of all employee exposure measurements. This record should be kept for 30 years.

Employee physical/medical examinations, including the name and social security number of the employee; physician's written opinions: any employee medical complaints related to exposure to toxic substances: and information provided to the examining physician. These records should be maintained for the duration of employment plus 30 years.

Employee Training. These records should be kept for one year beyond the last date of employment by that employee.
All records should be made available, upon request, to the OSHA Assistant Secretary, the Directory of NIOSH, affected employees, former employees, and designated representatives.

Training

An adequate emergency plan will address a training program. The following questions apply:
  1. Are supervisors trained periodically? Are front line supervisors and employees involved in plan review and development in their areas?

  2. Have employees and front line supervisors been trained in the recognition of early warning signs (e.g., unusual odors or sounds, signs and symptoms of exposure, unusual vessel temperature or pressure readings, leaks, vibraion, etc.)?

  3. Is safety and emergency plan training provided to all new employees and all other employees who assume a new job? How often is emergency response training repeated?

  4. Are front line supervisors involved in training employees? To what extent?

  5. Is there a method to evaluate training?

  6. Are contractors who come on site required to undergo specific training in hazards and precautions?

Evacuation

It is essential that an effective plan for evacuation of during an emergency situation be included in the overall written emergency plan. Questions concerning this aspect of the plan include:
  • Are decision logic charts available such that supervisors on each shift could make an informed decision to evacuate the site?

  • Are decision logic charts available such that the supervisors on each shift could provide local authorities the information necessary to decide when to evacuate the surrounding population?

  • Has cooperation of the local weather bureau been coordinated to predict temperature, winds, inversion levels, and other meteorologic conditions that could affect gas or vapor concentrations?

  • Are formulas or dispersion models provided for calculating concentrations of air contaminants down wind?

  • Have evacuation routes inside and outside the plant been planned and coordinated with local authorities?

    • Have employees and the local populace been informed of the routes to be used?

    • Are primary and alternate evacuation routes clearly indicated in the plan?

  • Are detection and alarm systems provided, e.g., for fire or toxic release?

    • Are there any periodic checks to ensure that detection and alarm systems are maintained in operable conditions?

    • Do alarm systems meet the requirements, as appropriate, of 29 CFR 1910.165?
  • Are evacuation instructions and signals for evacuation clear and understood by employees and by the surrounding popuiace?

  • Have provisions been made for the evacuation of handicapped persons?

  • Have "safe distances" been considered when regrouping areas were designated?

  • Have evacuation wardens been designated?

  • Are supervisors on each shift capable of executing the entire plan on their own?

  • Are employees instructed to proceed to regrouping points located cross wind from the source and at a "safe distance" from the danger zone? Are the regrouping points well known by employees? Have restrictive topographical conditions been considered?

    • Is there a wind sock or wind vane on the site to determine wind direction?

    • Is a complete copy of the emergency plan located in a safe place?

    • Are adequate supplies and equipment located at these points?

    • Are key personnel designated to make accountability checks at the regrouping points and to report the medical conditions of present and the names of those missing?

    • Are adequate communication systems available at these points?
Reentry and Cleanup

When evaluating plans for reentry and cleanup of an area which has been evacuated due to an emergency situation, the following questions should considered:
  1. Will safe levels for reentry be determined through environmental sampling by competent persons?

  2. Are chemical residues likely to present a hazard?

  3. Could the disaster have created unstable chemicals?

  4. Are "booby traps" likely to be present from the incident?

    • Hangup?

    • Unstable structures?

    • Developed pressure in pipes, vessels, containers, and pumps?
  5. Are employees qualified to do cleanup tasks? Will greater hazards likely result from attempting to maintain their employment rather than with contract companies who are experienced in the required tasks?

  6. How is equipment decontaminated?
  7. Is critical safety equipment on hand prior to startup operations?

APPENDIX I

Toxic Chemicals


The following list was developed as part of an international effort to identify chemical hazards. OSHA adopted the list as published in 1985 by the International Labor Organization as an aid in ranking hazards for inspection targeting purposes.
  1. 4-Aminodiphenyl
  2. Benzidine
  3. Benzidine salts
  4. Dimethylnitrosarnine
  5. 2-Naphthylamine
  6. Beryllium (powders, compounds)
  7. Bis(chloromethyl)ether
  8. 1,3-Propanesultone
  9. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)
  10. Arsenic pentoxide, Arsenic (V) acid and salts
  11. Arsenic trioxide, Arsenious (III) acid and salts
  12. Arsenic hydride (Arsine)
  13. Dimethylcarbamoyl chloride
  14. 4-(Chloroformyl) morpholine
  15. Carbonyl chloride (Phosgene)
  16. Chlorine
  17. Hydrogen ksulphide
  18. Acrylonitrile
  19. Hydrogen cyanide
  20. Carbon disulphide
  21. Bromine
  22. Acetylene (Ethyne)
  23. Hydrogen
  24. Ethylene oxide
  25. Propylene oxide
  26. 2-Cyanopropan-2-ol (Acetone cyanohydrin)
  27. 2-Propenal (Acrolein)
  28. 2-Propen-l-ol (Allyl alcohol)
  29. Allylamine
  30. Antimony hydride (Stibine)
  31. Ethyleneimine
  32. Formaldehyde (concentration>90%
  33. Hydrogen phosphide (Phosphine)
  34. Bromomethane (Methyl bromide)
  35. Methyl isocyanate
  36. Nitrogen oxides
  37. Sodium selenite
  38. Bis(2-chloroethyl) sulphide
  39. Phosacetim
  40. Tetraethyl lead
  41. Tetramethyl lead
  42. Promurit (1-(34-Dichlorophenyl)3-triazenethio-carboxamide)
  43. Chlorfenvinphos
  44. Crimidine
  45. Chloromethyl methyl ether
  46. Dimethyl phosphoramidocyanidic acid
  47. Carbophenothion
  48. Dialifos
  49. Cyanthoate
  50. Amiton
  51. Oxydisulfoton
  52. 00-Diethyl S-ethylsulphinylmethyl phosphorothioate
  53. OO-Diethyl S-ethylsulphonylmethyl phosphorothioate
  54. Disulfoton
  55. Demeton
  56. Demeton
  57. Phorate
  58. 00-Diethyl S-phosphorodithioate
  59. OO-Diethyl S-isopropylthiomethyl phosphorodithioate
  60. Pyrazoxon
  61. Pensulfothion
  62. Paraoxon (Diethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosophate)
  63. Parathion
  64. Azinphos-ethyl
  65. oo-Diethyl S-propylthiomethyl phosphorodithioate
  66. Thionazin
  67. Carbofuran
  68. Phosphamidon
  69. Tirpate (2,4-Dimethyl-1,3-dithiolane-2-carboxaldehydeO-methylcarbamoyloxime
  70. Mevinphos
  71. Parathion-methyl
  72. Azinphos-methyl
  73. Cycloheximide
  74. Diphacinone
  75. Tetramethylenedisulphotetramine
  76. EPN
  77. 4-Fluorobutyric acid>
  78. 4-Fluorobutyric acid, salts
  79. 4-Fluorobutyric acid, esters
  80. 4-Fluorobutyric acid, amides
  81. 4-Fluorocrotonic acid
  82. 4-Fluorocrotonic acid, salts
  83. 4-Fluorocrotonic acid, esters
  84. 4-Fluorocrotonic acid, amides
  85. Fluoroacetic acid
  86. Fluoroacetic acid, salts
  87. Fluoroacetic acid, esters
  88. Fluoroacetic acid, amides
  89. Fluenetil
  90. 4-Fluoro-2-hydroxybutyric acid
  91. 4-Fluoro-2-hydroxybutyric acid, salts
  92. 4-Fluoro-2-hydroxybutyric acid, esters
  93. 4-Fluoro-2-hydroxybutyric acid, amides
  94. Hydrogen fluoride
  95. Hydroxyacetonitrile (Glycolonitrile)
  96. 1,2,3,7,8,9-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
  97. Isodrin
  98. Hexamethylphosphoramide
  99. Juglone (5-Hydroxynaphtalene,1-4-dione)
  100. Warfin
  101. 4,4'-Methylenebis (2-chloroaniline)
  102. Ethion
  103. Aldicarb
  104. Nickel tetracarbonyl
  105. Isobenzan
  106. Pentaborane
  107. 1-Propen-2-chloro-1.3-diol-diacetate
  108. Propyleneimine
  109. Oxygen difluoride
  110. Sulphur dichloride
  111. Selenium hexafluoride
  112. Hydrogen selenide
  113. TEPP
  114. Sulfotep
  115. Dimefox
  116. 1-Tri(cyclohexy)stannyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole
  117. Triethylenemelamine
  118. Triethylenemelamine
  119. Cobalt (powders, compounds)
  120. Nickel (powders, compounds)
  121. Anabasine
  122. Tellurium hexafluoride
  123. Trichloromethanesulphenyl chloride
  124. 1,2-Dibromethane (Ethylene dibromide)
  125. Flammable substances as defined in Annex IV (c)(i)
  126. Flammable substances as defined in Annex IV (c)(ii)
  127. Diazodinitrophenol
  128. Diethylene glycol dinitrate
  129. Dinitrophenol, salts
  130. 1-Guanyl-4-nitrosaminoguanyl-1-tetrazene
  131. Bis (2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)amine
  132. Hydrazine nitrate
  133. Nitroglycerine
  134. Pentaerythritol tetranitrate
  135. Cyclotrimethylene trinitramine
  136. Trinitroaniline
  137. 2,4,6-Trinitroanisole
  138. Trintrobenzene
  139. Trinitrobenzoic acid
  140. Chlorotrinitrobenzene
  141. N-Methyl-N,2,3,4-N-tetranitroamiline
  142. 2,4,6-Trinitrophynol (Picric acid)
  143. Trinitrocresol
  144. 2,4,6-Trinitrophenetold
  145. 2,4,6-Trinitroresorcinol (Styphnic acid)
  146. 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene
  147. Ammonium nitrate 1
  148. Cellulose nitrate (containing > 12.6% nitrogen)
  149. Sulphur dioxide
  150. Hydrogen chloride (liquified gas)
  151. Flammable substances as defined in Annex IV (c)(iii)
  152. Sodium chlorate 1
  153. tert-Butyl peroxyacetate (concentration > 70%
  154. tert-Butyl peroxyisobutrate (concentration > 80%)
  155. tert-Butyl peroxymaleate (concentration > 80%)
  156. tert-Butyl peroxy isopropyl carbonate (concentration > 80%
  157. Dibenzyl peroxydicarbonate (concentration > 90%)
  158. 2,2-Bis (tert-butylperoxy) butane (concentration > 70%)
  159. 1,1-Bis (tert-butylperoxy) cyclohexane (concentration > 80%)
  160. Di-sec-butyl peroxydicarbonate (concentration > 80%)
  161. 2,2-Dihydroperoxypropane (concentration > 30%)
  162. Di-n-propyl peroxydicarbonate (concentration > 80%)
  163. 3,3,6,6,9,9-Hexamethyl-1,2,4,5-tetroxacyclononane (concentration > 75%)
  164. Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (concentration > 60%)
  165. Methyl isobutyl ketone peroxide (concentration > 60%)
  166. Peracetic acid (concentration > 60%)
  167. Lead axide
  168. Lead 2,4-6-trinitroresorcinoxide (Lead sytphnate)
  169. Mercury fulminate
  170. Cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine
  171. 2,2',4,4',6,6'-Hexanitrostilbene
  172. 1,3,5-Triamino-2,4,6-Trinitrobenzene
  173. Ethylene glycol dinitrate
  174. Ethyl nitrate
  175. Sodium picramate
  176. Barium azide
  177. Di-isobutryl peroxide (concentration > 50%)
  178. Diethyl peroxydicarbonate (concentration > 30%)
  179. tert-Butyl peroxypivalate (concentration > 77%)

1 Where this substance is in a state which gives it properties cabaple of creating a major-accident hazard.


APPENDIX II

Acutely Toxic Chemicals


The Environmental Protection Agency published this comprehensive list of acutely toxic chemicals in November, 1985 to help identify hazardous chemicals in use in the United States. This alphabetical list contains the chemical name as well as the Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) number.


Common Name CAS Codes
Acetone cyanohydrin
Acetone thiosemicarbazide
Acrolein
Acrylyl chloride
Aldicarb
Aldrin
Allyl alcohol
Allylamine
Aluminum phosphide
Aminopterin
Amiton
Amiton oxalate
Ammonium chloroplatinate
Amphetamine
Aniline, 2,4,6-trimethyl-
Antimony pentafluoride
Antimycin A
ANTU
Arsenic pentoxide
Arsenous oxide
Arsenous trichloride
Arsine
Azinphos-ethyl
Azinphos-methyl
Aziridine
Bacitracin
Benzenamine, 3-(trifluoromethyl)-
Benzene, 1-(chloromethyl)-4-nitro-
Benzenearsoinc acid
Benzenesulfonyl chloride
Benzotrichloride
Benzoyl chloride
Benzyl chloride
Bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carbonitrile, 5-chloro-6-((((methylamino)carbonyl)oxy)imino)-
,(1-alpha,2-beta,4-alpha,5-alpha,6E))-
Bis(chloromethyl) ketone
Bitoscanate
Boron trichloride
Boron trifluoride
Boron trifluoride compound with methyl ether (1:1)
Bromadiolone
Butadiene
Butyl isovalerate
Butyl vinyl ether
C.I. basic green 1
Cadmium oxide
Cadmium stearate
Calcium arsenate
Camphechlor
Cantharidin
Carbachol chloride
Carbamic acid, methyl-, O-(((2,4-dimethyl-1,3-dithiolan-2-yl)methylene)amino)-
Carbofuran
Carbophenothion
Carvone
Chlordane
Chlorfenvinfos
Chlorine
Chlorine dioxide
Chlorine monoxide
Chlorine oxide
Chlorine oxide (ClO2)
Chlormephos
Chlormequat chloride
Chloroethanol
Chloroethyl chloroformate
Chloromethyl ether
Chloromethyl methyl ether
Chlorophacinone
2-Chlorophenol
Chloroxuron
Chlorthiophos
Chromic chloride
Cobalt
Cobalt carbonyl
Cobalt, ((2,2'-(1,2-ethanediylbis(nitrilomethylidyne))bis(6-fluorophenylato))(2-)-N,N',O,O')-
Colchicine
Coumaphos
Coumatetralyl
Cresylic acid
Crimidine
Crotonaldehyde
Crotonaldehyde, (E)-
Cyanogen bromide
Cyanogen iodide
Cyanophos
Cyanuric fluoride
Cycloheximide
Cyclopentane
Decaborane
Demeton
Demeton-S-methyl
Dialifos
Diborane
Dibutyl phthalate
Dichlorobenzalkonium chloride
Dichloroethyl ether
Dichloromethylphenylsilane
Dichlorvos
Dicrotophos
Diepoxybutane
Diethyl chlorophosphate
Diethyl-p-phenylenediamine
Diethylcarbamazine citrate
Digitoxin
Diglycidyl ether
Digoxin
Dimefox
Dimethoate
Dimethyl phosphorochloridothioate
Dimethyl phthalate
Dimethyl sulfate
Dimethyl sulfide
Dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine
Dimethyldichlorosilane
Dimethylhydrazine
Dimetilan
Dinitrocresol
Dinoseb
Dinoterb
Dioctyl phthalate
Dioxathion
Dioxolane
Diphacinone
Diphosphoramide, octamethyl-
Disulfoton
Dithiazanine iodide
Dithiobiuret
EPN
Ementine, dihydrochloride
Endosulfan
Endothion
Endrin
Ergocalciferol
Ergotamine tartrate
Ethanesulfonyl chloride, 2-chloro-
Ethanol, 1,2-dichloro-, acetate
Ethion
Ethoprophos
Ethyl thiocyanate
Ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate
Ethylbis(2-chloroethyl)amine
Ethylene fluorohydrin
Ethylenediamine
Ethyleneimine
Ethylmercuric phosphate
Fenamiphos
Fenitrothion
Fensulfothion
Fluenetil
Fluorine
Fluoroacetamide
Fluoroacetic acid
Fluoroacetyl chloride
Fluorouracil
Fonofos
Formaldehyde cyanohydrin
Formetanate
Formothion
Formparanate
Fosthietan
Fuberidazole
Furan
Gallium trichloride
Hexachlorocyclopentadiene
Hexachloronaphthalene
Hexamethylenediamine, N,N'-dibutyl-
Hydrazine
Hydrocyanic acid
Hydrogen fluoride
Hydrogen selenide
Indomethacin
Iridium tetrachloride
Iron, pentacarbonyl
Isobenzan
Isobutyronitrile
Isocyanic acid, 3,4-dichlorophenyl ester
Isodrin
Isofluorphate
Isophorone diisocyanate
Isopropyl chloroformate
Isopropyl formate
Isopropylmethylpyrazolyl dimethylcarbamate
Lactonitrile
Leptophos
Lewisite
Lindane
Lithium hydride
Malononitrile
Manganese, tricarbonyl methylcyclopentadienyl
Mechlorethamine
Mephosfolan
Mercuric acetate
Mercuric chloride
Mercuric oxide
Mesitylene
Methacrolein diacetate
Methacrylic anhydride
Methacrylonitrile
Methacryloyl chloride
Methacryloyloxyethyl isocyanate
Methamidophos
Methanesulfonyl fluoride
Methidathion
Methiocarb
Methomyl
Methoxyethylmercuric acetate
Methyl 2-chloroacrylate
Methylene disulfide
Methyl isocyanate
Methyl isothiocyanate
Methyl mercaptan
Methyl phenkapton
Methyl phosphonic dichloride
Methyl thiocyanate
Methyl vinyl ketone
Methylhydrazine
Methylmercuric dicyanamide
Methyltrichlorosilane
Metolcarb
Mevinphos
Mexacarbate
Mitomycin C
Molinate
Monocrotophos
Muscimol
Mustard gas
Nickel
Nickel carbonyl
Nicotine
Nicotine sulfate
Nitric acid
Nitric oxide
Nitrocyclohexane
Nitrogen dioxide
Nitrosodimethylamine
Norbormide
Organorhodium Complex (PMN-82-147)
Orotic acid
Osmium tetroxide
Ouabain
Oxamyl
Oxetane, 3,3-bis(chloromethyl)-
Oxydisulfoton
Ozone
Paraquat
Paraquat methosulfate
Paris green
Pentaborane
Pentachloroethane
Pentachlorophenol
Pentadecylamine
Peracetic acid
Perchloromethyl mercaptan
Phenarsazine oxide
Phenol
Phenol, 2,2'-thiobis[4-chloro-6-methyl-
Phenol, 2,2'-thiobis[4,6-dichloro-
Phenol, 3-(1-methylethyl)-, methylcarbamate
Phenylene dichloroarsine
Phenylhydrazine hydrochloride
Phenylmercury acetate
Phenylsilatrane
Phenylthiourea
Phorate
Phosacetim
Phosfolan
Phosmet
Phosphamidon
Phosphine
Phosphonothioic acid, methyl-, O-ethyl O-(4-(methylthio)phenyl) ester
Phosphonothioic acid, methyl-, S-(2-(bis(1-methylethyl)amino)ethyl) O-ethyl ester
Phosphoric acid, dimethyl 4-(methylthio) phenyl ester
Phosphorothioic acid, O,O-diethyl-O-(4-nitrophenyl) ester
Phosphorous trichloride
Phosphorus
Phosphorus oxychloride
Phosphorus pentachloride
Phosphorus pentoxide
Phylloquinone
Physostigmine
Physostigmine, salicylate (1:1)
Picrotoxin
Piperidine
Piprotal
Pirimifos-ethyl
Platinous chloride
Platinum tetrachloride
Potassium arsenite
Potassium cyanide
Potassium silver cyanide
Promecarb
Propargyl bromide
Propiolactone, .beta.-
Propionitrile
Propionitrile, 3-chloro-
Propyl chloroformate
Propylene glycol, allyl ether
Propyleneimine
Prothoate
Pseudocumene
Pyrene
Pyridine, 4-amino-
Pyridine, 2-methyl-5-vinyl-
Pyridine, 4-nitro-, 1-oxide
Pyriminil
Rhodium trichloride
Salcomine
Sarin
Selenious acid
Selenium oxychloride
Semicarbazide hydrochloride
Sethoxydim
Silane, (4-aminobutyl)diethoxymethyl-
Sodium anthraquinone-1-sulfonate
Sodium arsenate
Sodium arsenite
Sodium azide (Na(N3))
Sodium cacodylate
Sodium chromate
Sodium fluoroacetate
Sodium pentachlorophenate
Sodium selenate
Sodium selenite
Sodium tellurite
Strychnine
Strychnine sulphate
Sulfotep
Sulfoxide, 3-chloropropyl octyl
Sulfur tetrafluoride
Sulfur trioxide
Sulfuric acid
Tabun
Tellurium
Tellurium hexafluoride
TEPP
Terbufos
Tetraethyl lead
Tetraethyltin
Tetranitromethane
Thallic oxide
Thallous carbonate
Thallous chloride
Thallous malonate
Thallous sulfate
Thallous sulfate
Thiocarbazide
Thiocyanic acid, (2-benzothiazolythio methyl…
Thiofanox
Thiometon
Thionazin
Thiophenol
Thiosemicarbazide
Thiourea, (2-chlorophenyl)-
Thiourea, (2-methylphenyl)-
Titanium tetrachloride
Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate
Toluene-2,6-diisocyanate
Triamiphos
Triazofos
Trichloro(chloromethyl)silane
Trichloro(dichlorophenyl)silane
1,1,1-Trichloroethane
1,1,2-Trichloroethane
Trichloroacetyl chloride
Trichloroethylsilane
Trichloronate
Trichlorophenylsilane
Trichlorophon
Triethoxysilane
Trimethylchlorosilane
Trimethylpropane phosphite
Trimethyltin chloride
Trimethyltin chloride
Tris(2-chloroethyl)amine
Valinomycin
Vanadium pentoxide
Vinylorbornene
Warfarin
Warfarin sodium
Xylene dichloride
Zinc phosphide
Zinc,dichloro[4,4-dimethyl-5-[[[(methylamino)...
Trans-1,4-Dichlorobutene
75865
1752303
107028
814686
116063
309002
107186
107119
20859738
54626
78535
3734972
16919-58-7
300629
88051
7783702
1397940
86884
1303282
1327533
7784341
7784421
2642719
86500
151564
01405-87-3
98168
100141
00098-05-5
98099
98077
98884
100447
15271417

534076
4044659
10294345
7637072
353424
28772567
106990
00109-19-3
00111-34-2
00633-03-4
1306190
2223930
7778441
8001352
56257
51832
26419738
1563662
786196
02244-16-8
57749
470906
7782505
10049044
7791211
7791211
10049044
24934916
999815
107073
627112
542881
107302
3691358
95578
1982474
21923239
10025737
7440484
10210681
62207765
64868
56724
5836293
00095-48-7
535897
4170303
123739
506683
506785
2636262
675149
66819
00287-92-3
17702419
8065483
919868
10311849
19287457
84742
08023-53-8
111444
149746
62737
141662
1464535
814493
00093-05-0
01642-54-2
71636
2238075
20830755
115264
60515
2524030
131113
77781
75183
99989
75785
57147
644644
534521
88857
1420071
11784
78342
64606
82666
152169
298044
514738
541537
2104645
316427
115-29-7
320777
72208
50146
379793
1622328
10140871
563122
13194484
542905
759944
538078
371620
107153
151564
2235258
22224926
122145
115902
4301502
7782414
640197
144490
359068
51218
944229
107164
23422539
2540821
17702577
21548323
3878191
110009
13450903
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1335871
4835114
302012
74908
7664393
7783075
53861
10025975
13463406
297789
78820
102363
465736
55914
4098719
108236
625558
119380
78977
21609905
541253
58899
7580678
109773
12108133
51752
950107
1600277
7487947
21908532
108678
10476956
760930
126987
920467
30674807
10265926
558258
950378
2032657
16752775
151382
80637
624920
624839
556616
74931
3735237
676971
556649
78944
60344
502396
75796
1129415
7786347
315184
50077
2212671
6923224
2763964
505602
7440020
13463393
54115
65305
7697372
10102439
1122607
10102440
62759
991424
0
65861
20816120
630604
23135220
78717
2497076
10028156
1910425
2074502
12002038
19624227
76017
87865
2570265
79210
594423
58366
108952
4418660
97187
64006
696286
59881
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2097190
103855
298022
4104147
947024
732116
13171216
7803512
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10025873
10026138
1314563
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57647
124878
110894
5281130
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10124502
151508
506616
2631370
106967
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542767
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10049077
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7791233
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3037727
128563
7631892
7784465
26628228
124652
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62748
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13410010
10102188
10102202
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60413
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7446119
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107493
13071799
78002
597648
116143
1314325
6533739
7791120
2757188
7446186
10031591
2231574
21564170
39196184
640153
297972
108985
79196
5344821
614788
7550450
584849
91087
1031476
24017478
1558254
27137855
71556
79005
76028
115219
327980
98135
52686
998301
75774
824113
1066451
639587
555771
2001958
1314621
3048644
81812
129066
28347139
1314847
58270089
110576



Related Publications

BLS Publication 412-3 What Every Employer Needs to Know About OSHA Recordkeeping
OSHA 3084 Chemical Hazard Communication
OSHA 3047 Comsultation Services for the Employer
OSHA 3088 How to Prepare for Workplace Emergencies
OSHA 3077 Personal Protective Equipment
OSHA 3079 Respiratory Protection

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911 Walnut Street, Room 406
Kansas City, MO 64106
Telephone: (816)374-5861

Region III
(CO, MT, ND, SD, UT*, WY*)
Federal Building, Room 1554
1962 Stout Street
Denver, CO 80294
Telephone: (303)844-3061

Region IX
(American Samoa, AZ*, CA*, Guam, HI*, NV*, Pacific Trust Territories)
P.O. Box 36017
450 Golden Gate Avenue
San Francisco, CA 94102
Telephone: (415) 556-7260

Region X
(AK*, ID, OR*, WA*)
Federal Office Building
Room 6003
909 First Avenue
Seattle, WA 98174
Telephone: (206) 442-5930

*These States and territories operate their own OSHA-approved job safety and health programs (except Connecticut and New York whose plans cover public employees only).