Archive Notice - OSHA Archive

NOTICE: This is an OSHA Archive Document, and no longer represents OSHA Policy. It is presented here as historical content, for research and review purposes only.


OSHA 3124
Stairways and Ladders


[Cover - Stairways and Ladders]
Stairways
and Ladders


U.S. Department of Labor
Occupational Safety and Health Administration

OSHA 3124
1997 (Revised)



This informational booklet is intended to provide a generic, non-exhaustive, overview of a particular standards-related topic. This publication does not itself alter or determine compliance responsibilities, which are set forth in OSHA standards themselves and the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. Moreover, because interpretations and enforcement policy may change over time, for additional guidance on OSHA compliance requirements, the reader should consult current administrative interpretations and decisions by the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission and the courts.

Material contained in this publication is in the public domain and may be reproduced, fully or partially, without permission of the Federal Government. Source credit is requested by not required.

This information will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request.

Voice phone: (202) 219-8615;

Telecommunications Device for the Deaf (TDD) message referral phone: 1 (800) 326-2577.




[Seal - US Department of Labor] Stairways
and Ladders

U.S. Department of Labor
Alexis M. Herman, Secretary


Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Gregory R. Watchman, Acting Assistant Secretary

OSHA 3124
1997 (Revised)



Contents




Introduction

Scope and Application

General Requirements

Stairways

Stairrails and Handrails

Ladders
Portable Ladders
Fixed Ladders
Cages for Fixed Ladders
Wells for Fixed Ladders
Ladder Safety Devices and Related Support Systems for Fixed Ladders
Mounting Ladder Safety Devices for Fixed Ladders

Use of All Ladders

Structural Defects

Training Requirements

Glossary

Other Sources of OSHA Assistance
Safety and Health Program Management
State Programs
Consultation Services
Voluntary Protection Programs (VPPs)
Training and Education
Electronic Information
Emergencies


Related Publications

States with Approved Plans

OSHA Consultation Project Directory

OSHA Area Offices

OSHA Regional Offices



Introduction




Stairways and ladders are a major source of injuries and fatalities among construction workers. OSHA estimates that there are 24,882 injuries and as many as 36 fatalities per year due to falls from stairways and ladders used in construction. Nearly half of these injuries are serious enough to require time off the job--11,570 lost workday injuries and 13,312 non-lost workday injuries occur annually due to falls from stairways and ladders used in construction. As these data demonstrate, work on and around ladders and stairways is hazardous.

This pocket-sized booklet serves as a quick and easy reference for employers and employees on the requirements of OSHA regulations for the safe use of ladders and stairs in the construction industry (Subpart X, Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1926.1050 through 1926.1060).

In addition, employers and employees in the 25 states that operate OSHA-approved workplace safety and health plans should check with their state agency. Their state may be enforcing standards and other procedures that--while "at least as effective as" federal standards--are not always identical to the federal rules. For more information on state plans, see the "State Programs" section of this publication.



Scope and application




The OSHA rules apply to all stairways and ladders used in construction, alteration, repair (including painting and decorating), and demolition of worksites covered by OSHA'S construction safety and health standards. They also specify when stairways and ladders must be provided. They do not apply to ladders that are specifically manufactured for scaffold access and egress, but do apply to job-made and manufactured portable ladders intended for general purpose use and which are then used for scaffold access and egress. Rules for ladders used on or with scaffolds are addressed in Subpart L--Scaffolds (29 CFR 1926.451).



General Requirements




  • A stairway or ladder must be provided at all worker points of access where there is a break in elevation of 19 inches (48 cm) or more and no ramp, runway, embankment, or personnel hoist is provided.


  • When there is only one point of access between levels, it must be kept clear to permit free passage by workers. If' free passage becomes restricted, a second point of access must be provided and used.


  • Where there are more than two points of access between levels, at least one point of access must be kept clear.


  • All stairway and ladder fall protection systems required by these rules must be installed and all duties required by the stairway and ladder rules must be performed before employees begin work that requires them to use stairways or ladders and their respective fall protection systems.




Stairways




The following general requirements apply to all stairways used during the process of construction, as indicated:
  • Stairways that will not be a permanent part of the structure on which construction work is performed must have landings at least 30 inches deep and 22 inches wide (76 x 56 cm) at every 12 feet (3.7 m) or less of vertical rise.

  • Stairways must be installed at least 30 degrees--and no more than 50 degrees--from the horizontal.

  • Variations in riser height or stair tread depth must not exceed 1/4 inch in any stairway system, including any foundation structure used as one or more treads of the stairs.

  • Where doors or gates open directly onto a stairway, a platform must be provided that extends at least 20 inches (51 cm) beyond the swing of the door.

  • Metal pan landings and metal pan treads must be secured in place before filling.

  • All stairway parts must be free of dangerous projections such as protruding nails.

  • Slippery conditions on stairways must be corrected.

  • Workers may not use spiral stairways that will not be a permanent part of the structure.


The following requirements apply to stairs in temporary service during construction:
  • Except during construction of the actual stairway, stairways with metal pan landings and treads must not be used where the treads and/or landings have not been filled in with concrete or other materials, unless the pans of the stairs and/or landings are temporarily filled in with wood or other materials. All treads and landings must be replaced when worn below the top edge of the pan.

  • Except during construction of the actual stairway, skeleton metal frame structures and steps must not be used (where treads and/or landings will be installed later) unless the stairs are fitted with secured temporary treads and landings.

  • Temporary treads must be made of wood or other solid material and installed the full width and depth of the stair.




Stairrails and Handrails




The following general requirements apply to all stairrails and handrails:
  • Stairways having four or more risers, or rising more than 30 inches (76 cm) in height--whichever is less--must have at least one handrail. A stairrail also must be installed along each unprotected side or edge. When the top edge of a stairrail system also serves as a handrail, the height of the top edge must be no more than 37 inches (94 cm) nor less than 36 inches (9 1.5 cm) from the upper surface of the stairrail to the surface of the tread.

  • Winding or spiral stairways must have a handrail to prevent using areas where the tread width is less than 6 inches (15 cm).M

  • Stairrails installed after Mach 15.1991, must be not less than 36 inches (91.5 cm) in height.

  • Midrails, screens, mesh, intermediate vertical members, or equivalent intermediate structural members must be provided between the top rail and stairway steps to the stairrail system.

  • Midrails, when used, must be located midway between the top of the stairrail system and the stairway steps.

  • Screens or mesh, when used, must extend from the top rail to the stairway step and along the opening between top rail supports.

  • Intermediate vertical members, such as balusters, when used, must not be more than 19 inches (48 cm) apart.

  • Other intermediate structural members, when used, must be installed so that there are no openings of more than 19 inches (48 cm) wide.

  • Handrails and the top rails of the stairrail systems must be able to withstand, without failure, at least 200 pounds (890 n) of weight applied within 2 inches (5 cm) of the top edge in any downward or outward direction, at any point along the top edge.

  • The height of handrails must not be more than 37 inches (94 cm) nor less than 30 inches (76 cm) from the upper surface of the handrail to the surface of the tread.

  • The height of the top edge of a stairrail system used as a handrail must not be more than 37 inches (94 cm) nor less than 36 inches (91.5 cm)(1) from the upper surface of the stairrail system to the surface of the tread.

  • Stairrail systems and handrails must be surfaced to prevent injuries such as punctures or lacerations and to keep clothing from snagging.

  • Handrails must provide an adequate handhold for employees to grasp to prevent falls.

  • The ends of stairrail systems and handrails must be built to prevent dangerous projections, such as rails protruding beyond the end posts of the system.

  • Temporary handrails must have a minimum clearance of 3 inches (8 cm) between the handrail and walls, stairrail systems, and other objects.

  • Unprotected sides and edges of stairway landings must be provided with standard 42-inch (1.1 m) guardrail systems.




Ladders




The following general requirements apply to all ladders, including job-made ladders:
  • A double-cleated ladder or two or more ladders must be provided when ladders are the only way to enter or exit a work area having 25 or more employees, or when a ladder serves simultaneous two-way traffic.

  • Ladder rungs, cleats, and steps must be parallel, level, and uniformly spaced when the ladder is in position for use.

  • Rungs, cleats, and steps of portable and fixed ladders (except as provided below) must not be spaced less than 10 inches (25 cm) apart, nor more than 14 inches (36 cm) apart, along the ladder's side rails.

  • Rungs, cleats, and steps of step stools must not be less than 8 inches (20 cm) apart, nor more than 12 inches (31 cm) apart, between center lines of the rungs, cleats, and steps.

  • Rungs, cleats, and steps at the base section of extension trestle ladders must not be less than 8 inches (20 cm) nor more than 18 inches (46 cm) apart, between center lines of the rungs, cleats, and steps. The rung spacing on the extension section must not be less than 6 inches (15 cm) nor more than 12 inches (31 cm).

  • Ladders must not be tied or fastened together to create longer sections unless they are specifically designed for such use.

  • A metal spreader or locking device must be provided on each stepladder to hold the front and back sections in an open position when the ladder is being used.

  • When splicing side rails, the resulting side rail must be equivalent in strength to a one-piece side rail made of the same material.

  • Two or more separate ladders used to reach an elevated work area must be offset with a platform or landing between the ladders, except when portable ladders are used to gain access to fixed ladders.

  • Ladder components must be surfaced to prevent injury from punctures or lacerations. and prevent snagging of clothing.

  • Wood ladders must not be coated with any opaque covering, except for identification or warning labels which may be placed only on one face of a side rail.



Portable Ladders
  • Non-self-supporting and self-supporting portable ladders must support at least four times the maximum intended load; extra heavy-duty type 1A metal or plastic ladders must sustain 3.3 times the maximum intended load. The ability of a self-supporting ladder to sustain loads must be determined by applying the load to the ladder in a downward vertical direction. The ability of a non-self-supporting ladder to sustain loads must be determined by applying the load in a downward vertical direction when the ladder is placed at a horizontal angle of 75.5 degrees.

  • The minimum clear distance between side rails for all portable ladders must be 11.5 inches (29 cm).

  • The rungs and steps of portable metal ladders must be corrugated, knurled, dimpled, coated with skid-resistant material, or treated to minimize slipping.



Fixed Ladders
  • A fixed ladder must be able to support at least two loads of 250 pounds (114 kg) each, concentrated between any two consecutive attachments. Fixed ladders also must support added anticipated loads caused by ice buildup, winds, rigging, and impact loads resulting from using ladder safety devices.

  • Individual rung/step ladders must extend at least 42 inches (1.1 m) above an access level or landing platform either by the continuation of the rung spacings as horizontal grab bars or by providing vertical grab bars that must have the same lateral spacing as the vertical legs of the ladder rails.

  • Each step or rung of a fixed ladder must be able to support a load of at least 250 pounds (114 kg) applied in the middle of the step or rung.

  • The minimum clear distance between the sides of individual rung/step ladders and between the side rails of other fixed ladders must be 16 inches (41 cm).

  • The rungs of individual rung/step ladders must be shaped to prevent slipping off the end of the rungs.

  • The rungs and steps of fixed metal ladders manufactured after March 15, 1991, must be corrugated, knurled, dimpled, coated with skid-resistant material, or treated to minimize slipping.

  • The minimum perpendicular clearance between fixed ladder rungs, cleats, and steps and any obstruction behind the ladder must be 7 inches (18 cm), except that the clearance for an elevator pit ladder must be 4.5 inches (11 cm).

  • The minimum perpendicular clearance between the centerline of fixed ladder rungs, cleats, and steps, and any obstruction on the climbing side of the ladder must be 30 inches (76 cm). If obstructions are unavoidable, clearance may be reduced to 24 inches (61 cm), provided a deflection device is installed to guide workers around the obstruction.

  • The step-across distance between the center of the steps or rungs of fixed ladders and the nearest edge of a landing area must be no less than 7 inches (18 cm) and no more than 12 inches (30 cm). A landing platform must be provided if the step-across distance exceeds 12 inches (30 cm).

  • Fixed ladders without cages or wells must have at least a 15-inch (38 cm) clear width to the nearest permanent object on each side of the centerline of the ladder.

  • Fixed ladders must be provided with cages, wells, ladder safety devices, or self-retracting lifelines where the length of climb is less than 24 feet (7.3 m) but the top of the ladder is at a distance greater than 24 feet (7.3 m) above lower levels.

  • If the total length of the climb on a fixed ladder equals or exceeds 24 feet (7.3 m), the following requirements must be met: fixed ladders must be equipped with either (a) ladder safety devices; (b) self-retracting lifelines and rest platforms at intervals not to exceed 150 feet (45.7 m); or (c) a cage or well, and multiple ladder sections, each ladder section not to exceed 50 feet (15.2 m) in length. These ladder sections must be offset from adjacent sections, and landing platforms must be provided at maximum intervals of 50 feet (15.2 m).

  • The side rails of through or side-step fixed ladders must extend 42 inches (1.1 m) above the top level or landing platform served by the ladder. Parapet ladders must have an access level at the roof if the parapet is cut to permit passage through it; if the parapet is continuous, the access level is the top of the parapet.

  • Steps or rungs for through-fixed-ladder extensions must be omitted from the extension; and the extension of side rails must be flared to provide between 24 inches (61 cm) and 30 inches (76 cm) clearance between side rails.

  • When safety devices are provided, the maximum clearance distance between side rail extensions must not exceed 36 inches (91 cm).


Cages for Fixed Ladders
  • Horizontal bands must be fastened to the side rails of rail ladders or directly to the structure, building, or equipment for individual-rung ladders.

  • Vertical bars must be on the inside of the horizontal bands and must be fastened to them.

  • Cages must not extend less than 27 inches (68 cm), or more than 30 inches (76 cm) from the centerline of the step or rung, and must not be less than 27 inches (68 cm) wide.

  • The inside of the cage must be clear of projections.

  • Horizontal bands must be spaced at intervals not more than 4 feet (1.2 m) apart measured from centerline to centerline.

  • Vertical bars must be spaced at intervals not more than 9.5 inches (24 cm), measured centerline to centerline.

  • The bottom of the cage must be between 7 feet (2.1 m) and 8 feet (2.4 m) above the point of access to the bottom of the ladder, The bottom of the cage must be flared not less than 4 inches (10 cm) between the bottom horizontal band and the next higher band.

  • The top of the cage must be a minimum of 42 inches (1.1 m) above the top of the platform or the point of access at the top of the ladder. Provisions must be made for access to the platform or other point of access.


Wells for Fixed Ladders
  • Wells must completely encircle the ladder.

  • Wells must be free of projections.

  • The inside face of the well on the climbing side of the ladder must extend between 27 inches (68 cm) and 30 inches (76 cm) from the centerline of the step or rung.

  • The inside width of the well must be at least 30 inches (76 cm).

  • The bottom of the well above the point of access to the bottom of the ladder must be between 7 feet (2.1 m) and 8 feet (2.4 m).


Ladder Safety Devices and Related Support Systems for Fixed Ladders
  • All safety devices must be able to withstand, without failure, a drop test consisting of a 500-pound weight (226 kg) dropping 18 inches (41 cm).

  • All safety devices must permit the worker to ascend or descend without continually having to hold, push, or pull any part of the device, leaving both hands free for climbing.

  • All safety devices must be activated within 2 feet (.61 m) after a fall occurs, and limit the descending velocity of an employee to 7 feet/second (2.1 m/sec) or less.

  • The connection between the carrier or lifeline and the point of attachment to the body belt or harness must not exceed 9 inches (23 cm) in length.


Mounting Ladder Safety Devices for Fixed Ladders
  • Mountings for rigid carriers must be attached at each end of the carrier, with intermediate mountings, spaced along the entire length of the carrier, to provide the necessary strength to stop workers' falls.

  • Mountings for flexible carriers must be attached at each end of the carrier. Cable guides for flexible carriers must be installed with a spacing between 25 feet (7.6 m) and 40 feet ( 12.2 m) along the entire length of the carrier, to prevent wind damage to the system.

  • The design and installation of mountings and cable guides must not reduce the strength of the ladder.

  • Side rails and steps or rungs for side-step fixed ladders must be continuous in extension.




  • When portable ladders are used for access to an upper landing surface, the side rails must extend at least 3 feet (.9 m) above the upper landing surface. When such an extension is not possible, the ladder must be secured, and a grasping device such as a grab rail must be provided to assist workers in mounting and dismounting the ladder. A ladder extension must not deflect under a load that would cause the ladder to slip off its supports.

  • Ladders must be maintained free of oil, grease, and other slipping hazards.

  • Ladders must not be loaded beyond the maximum intended load for which they were built nor beyond their manufacturer's rated capacity.

  • Ladders must be used only for the purpose for which they were designed.

  • Non-self-supporting ladders must be used at an angle where the horizontal distance from the top support to the foot of the ladder is approximately one-quarter of the working length of the ladder. Wood job-made ladders with spliced side rails must be used at an angle where the horizontal distance is one-eighth the working length of the ladder.

  • Fixed ladders must be used at a pitch no greater than 90 degrees from the horizontal, measured from the back side of the ladder.

  • Ladders must be used only on stable and level surfaces unless secured to prevent accidental movement.

  • Ladders must not be used on slippery surfaces unless secured or provided with slip-resistant feet to prevent accidental movement. Slip-resistant feet must not be used as a substitute for the care in placing, lashing, or holding a ladder upon slippery surfaces.

  • Ladders placed in areas such as passageways, doorways, or driveways, or where they can be displaced by workplace activities or traffic must be secured to prevent accidental movement or a barricade must be used to keep traffic or activities away from the ladder.

  • The area around the top and bottom of the ladders must be kept clear.

  • The top of a non-self-supporting ladder must be placed with two rails supported equally unless it is equipped with a single support attachment.

  • Ladders must not be moved, shifted, or extended while in use.

  • Ladders must have nonconductive side rails if they are used where the worker or the ladder could contact exposed energized electrical equipment.

  • The top or top step of a stepladder must not be used as a step.

  • Crossbracing on the rear section of stepladders must not be used for climbing unless the ladders are designed and provided with steps for climbing on both front and rear sections.

  • Ladders must be inspected by a competent person for visible defects on a periodic basis and after any incident that could affect their safe use.

  • Single-rail ladders must not be used.

  • When ascending or descending a ladder, the worker must face the ladder.

  • Each worker must use at least one hand to grasp the ladder when climbing.

  • A worker on a ladder must not carry any object or load that could cause him/her to lose balance and fall.


[Picture - Folding Ladder]
  • Portable ladders with structural defects--such as broken or missing rungs, cleats, or steps, broken or split rails, corroded components, or other faulty or defective components--must immediately be marked defective, or tagged with "Do Not Use" or similar language and withdrawn from service until repaired.

  • Fixed ladders with structural defects--such as broken or missing rungs, cleats, or steps, broken or split rails, or corroded components--must be withdrawn from service until repaired.

  • Defective fixed ladders are considered withdrawn from use when they are (a) immediately tagged with "Do Not Use" or similar language; (b) marked in a manner that identifies them as defective; or (c) blocked-such as with a plywood attachment that spans several rungs.

  • Ladder repairs must restore the ladder to a condition meeting its original design criteria before the ladder is returned to use.




Training Requirements




Under the provisions of the standard, employers must provide a training program for each employee using ladders and stairways. The program must enable each employee to recognize hazards related to ladders and stairways and to use proper procedures to minimize these hazards. For example, employers must ensure that each employee is trained by a competent person in the following areas, as applicable:
  • the nature of fall hazards in the work area:

  • the correct procedures for erecting, maintaining, and disassembling the fall protection systems to be used;

  • the proper construction, use, placement, and care in handling of all stairways and ladders; and

  • the maximum intended load-carrying capacities of ladders used.


In addition, employers must retrain each employee as necessary to maintain the understanding and knowledge acquired through compliance with the standard.



Glossary




Cleat - A ladder crosspiece of rectangular cross section placed on edge upon which a person may step while ascending or descending a ladder.

Double-Cleat Ladder - A ladder with a center rail to allow simultaneous two-way traffic for employees ascending or descending.

Failure - Load refusal, breakage, or separation of components.

Fixed Ladder - A ladder that cannot be readily moved or carried because it is an integral part of a building or structure.

Handrail - A rail used to provide employees with a handhold for support.

Job-Made Ladder - A ladder that is fabricated by employees, typically at the construction site; noncommercially manufactured.

Load Refusal - The point where the structural members lose their ability to carry the load.

Point of Access - All areas used by employees for work-related passage from one area or level to another.

Portable Ladder - A ladder that can be readily moved or carried.

Riser Height - The vertical distance from the top of a tread or platform/landing to the top of the next higher tread or platform/landing.

Side-Step Fixed Ladder - A fixed ladder that requires a person to get off at the top to step to the side of the ladder side rails to reach the landing.

Single-Cleat Ladder - A ladder consisting of a pair of side rails connected together by cleats, rungs, or steps.

Stairrail System - A vertical barrier erected along the unprotected sides and edges of a stairway to prevent employees from falling to lower levels.

Temporary Service Stairway - A stairway where permanent treads and/or landings are to be filled in at a later date.

Through Fixed Ladder - A fixed ladder that requires a person getting off at the top to step between the side rails of the ladder to reach the landing.

Tread Depth - The horizontal distance from front to back of a tread, excluding nosing, if any.



Other Sources of OSHA Assistance


Safety and Health Program Management

Effective management of worker safety and health protection is a decisive factor in reducing the extent and severity of work-related injuries and illnesses and their related costs. To assist employers and employees in developing effective safety and health programs, OSHA published recommended Safety and Health Program Management Guidelines (Federal Register 54(18):3908-3916, January 26, 1989). These voluntary guidelines apply to all places of employment covered by OSHA.

The guidelines identify four general elements that are critical to the development of a successful safety and health management program:
  • management commitment and employee involvement,

  • worksite analysis,

  • hazard prevention and control, and

  • safety and health training.


The guidelines recommend specific actions under each of these general elements to achieve an effective safety and health program. A single, free copy of the guidelines can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Labor, OSHA/OSHA Publications, P.O. Box 37535, Washington, DC 20013-7535. by sending a self-addressed mailing label with your request.


State Programs

The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 encourages states to develop and operate their own job safety and health plans. States with plans approved under section 18(b) of the OSH Act must adopt standards and enforce requirements that are at least as effective as federal requirements. There are currently 25 state plan states: 23 of these states administer plans covering both private and public (state and local government employees); the other 2 states, Connecticut and New York, cover public employees only. Plan states must adopt standards comparable to federal requirements within 6 months of a federal standard's promulgation. Until such time as a state standard is promulgated, Federal OSHA provides interim enforcement assistance, as appropriate, in these states. A listing of approved state plans appears at the end of this publication.


Consultation Services

Consultation assistance is available on request to employers who want help in establishing and maintaining a safe and healthful workplace. Largely funded by OSHA, the service is provided at no cost to the employer. Primarily developed for smaller employers with more hazardous operations, the consultation service is delivered by state government agencies or universities employing professional safety consultants and health consultants. Comprehensive assistance includes an appraisal of all work practices and environmental hazards of the workplace and all aspects of the employer's present job safety and health program.

The program is separate from OSHA'S inspection efforts. No penalties are proposed or citations issued for any safety or health problems identified by the consultant. The service is confidential.

For more information concerning consultation assistance, see the list of consultation projects at the end of this publication.


Voluntary Protection Programs (VPPs)

Voluntary Protection Programs (VPPs) and onsite consultation services, when coupled with an effective enforcement program, expand worker protection to help meet the goals of the OSH Act. The three VPPs--Star, Merit and Demonstration--are designed to recognize outstanding achievement by companies that have successfully incorporated comprehensive safety and health programs into their total management system. They motivate others to achieve excellent safety and health results in the same outstanding way as they establish a cooperative relationship among employers, employees, and OSHA.

For additional information on VPPs and how to apply, contact your nearest OSHA area or regional office listed at the end of this publication.


Training and Education

OSHA area offices offer a variety of information services, such as publications, audiovisual aids, technical advice, and speakers for special engagements. The OSHA Training Institute in Des Plaines, IL, provides basic and advanced courses in safety and health for federal and state compliance officers, state consultants, federal agency personnel, and private sector employers, employees, and their representatives.

OSHA also provides funds to nonprofit organizations, through grants to conduct workplace training and education in subjects where OSHA believes there is a lack of workplace training. Grants are awarded annually and grant recipients are expected to contribute 20 percent of the total grant cost.

For more information on grants, training, and education, contact the OSHA Training Institute, Office of Training and Education, 1555 Times Drive, Des Plaines, IL 60018, (847) 297-4810; (847) 297-4874 fax.


Electronic Information

Internet--OSHA standards, interpretations, directives, and additional information are now on the World Wide Web at http://www.osha.gov/

CD-ROM -- A wide variety of OSHA materials including standards, interpretations, directives, and more can be purchased on the OSHA CD-ROM.
Emergencies

For life-threatening situations, call (800) 321-OSHA. Complaints will go immediately to the nearest OSHA area or state office for help.

For further information on any OSHA program, contact your nearest OSHA area or regional office listed at the end of this publication.



Related Publications




Single, free copies of the following publications can be obtained from the OSHA Publications Office, U.S. Department of Labor, P.O. Box 37535, Washington, DC 20013-7535, (202)219-4667 phone or (202) 219-9266 fax, or from your nearest OSHA Regional Office listed in this booklet. Send a self-addressed label with your request.

All About OSHA - OSHA 2056

Concrete and Masonry Construction - OSHA 3106

Crane or Derrick Suspended Personnel Platforms - OSHA 3100

Employee Workplace Rights - OSHA 3021

Fall Protection - OSHA 3146

OSHA Guide to Using Scaffolds in the Construction Industry - OSHA 3150

OSHA Inspections - OSHA 2098

Personal Protective Equipment - OSHA 3077

The following publications are available from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954, (202) 512-1800 phone or (202) 512-2250 fax. Include GPO Order Number and make checks payable to the Superintendent of Documents. GPO also accepts MasterCard or Visa. Obtain information and order electronically via GPO Access, Superintendent of Documents' Home Page on the GPO Web--URL: http://www.gpo.gov/su_docs/

Excavations (OSHA 2226)
Order No. 029-016-00167-1; cost $1.25.

Hand and Power Tools (OSHA 3080) Order No. 029-016-00143-3; cost $1.00.

Principal Emergency Response and Preparedness Requirements in OSHA Standards
(OSHA 3 122) Order No. 029-016-00154-9; cost $3.75.

Safety and Health Standards for the Construction Industry (OSHA 3149)
Order No. 029-016-00177-8; cost $58.00.

Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines (OSHA 2254)
Order No. 029-016-00160-3; cost $6.00.



States with Approved Plans




Commissioner
Alaska Department of Labor
1111 West 8th Street
Room 306
Juneau, AK 99801
(907) 465-2700


Director
Industrial Commission of Arizona
800 W. Washington
Phoenix, AZ 85007
(602) 542-5795


Director
California Department of Industrial Relations
45 Fremont Street
San Francisco, CA 94105
(415) 972-8835


Commissioner
Connecticut Department of Labor
200 Folly Brook Boulevard
Wetherstield, CT 06109
(860) 566-5123


Director
Hawaii Department of Labor and Industrial Relations
830 Punchbowl Street
Honolulu, HI 96813
(808) 586-8844


Commissioner
Indiana Department of Labor
State Office Building
402 West Washington Street
Room W195
Indianapolis, IN 46204
(317) 232-2378


Commissioner
Iowa Division of Labor Services
1000 E. Grand Avenue
Des Moines, IA 50319
(515) 281-3447


Secretary
Kentucky Labor Cabinet
1047 U.S. Highway, 127 South, Suite 2
Frankfort, KY 40601
(502) 564-3070


Commissioner
Maryland Division of Labor and Industry
Department of Labor Licensing and Regulation
1110 N. Eutaw St., Room 613
Baltimore, MD 21202-2206
(410) 767-2215


Administrator
Michigan Department of Consumer and Industry Services
4th Floor, Law Building
P.O. Box 30004
Lansing, MI 48909
(517) 373-7230


Commissioner
Minnesota Department of Labor and Industry
443 Lafayette Road
St. Paul, MN 55155
(612) 296-2342


Administrator
Nevada Division of Industrial Relations
400 West King Street
Carson City, NV 89710
(702) 687-3032


Secretary
New Mexico Environment Department
1190 St. Francis Drive
P.O. Box 26110
Santa Fe, NM 87502
(505) 827-2850


Commissioner
New York Department of Labor
W. Averell Harriman State Office
Building -12
Room 500
Albany, NY 12240
(518) 457-2741


Commissioner
North Carolina Department of Labor
319 Chapanoke Road
Raleigh, NC 27603
(919) 662-4585


Administrator
Department of Consumer and Business Services
Occupational Safety and Health Division (OROSHA)
Labor and Industries Building
Room 430
Salem, OR 97310
(503) 378-3272


Secretary
Puerto Rico Department
of Labor and Human Resources
Prudencio Rivera Martinez Building
505 Munoz Rivera Avenue
Hato Rey, PR 00918
(809) 754-2119


Director
South Carolina Department
of Labor, Licensing, and Regulation
110 Centerview Drive
P.O. Box 11329
Columbia SC 29210
(803) 896-4300


Commissioner
Tennessee Department of Labor
Attention: Robert Taylor
710 James Robertson Parkway
Nashville, TN 37243-0659
(615) 741-2582


Commissioner
Industrial Commission of Utah
160 East 300 South, 3rd Floor
P.O. Box 146600
Salt Lake City, UT 84114-6600
(801) 530-6898


Commissioner
Vermont Department of Labor and Industry
National Life Building Drawer 20
120 State Street
Montpelier, VT 05620
(802) 828-2288


Commissioner
Virgin Islands Department of Labor
2131 Hospital Street Box 890
Christiansted St. Croix,
VI 00820-4666
(809) 773-1994


Commissioner
Virginia Department of Labor and Industry
Powers-Taylor Building
13 South 13th Street
Richmond, VA 23219
(804) 786-2377


Director
Washington Department of Labor and Industries
General Administration Building
P.O. Box 44001
Olympia, WA 98504-400
(360) 902-4200


Administrator
Workers' Safety and Compensation Division (WSC)
Wyoming Department of Employment
Herschler Building
2nd Floor East
122 west 125th Street
Cheyenne, WY 82002
(307) 777-7786




OSHA Consultation Project Directory




StateTelephone
   
Alabama(205) 348-7136
Alaska(907) 269-4957
Arizona(602) 542-5795
Arkansas(501) 682-4522
California(415) 972-8515
Colorado(970) 491-6151
Connecticut(860) 566-4550
Delaware(302) 761-8219
District of Columbia(202) 576-6339
Florida(904) 488-3044
Georgia(404) 894-2643
Guam(671) 475-0136
Hawaii(808) 568-9100
Idaho(208) 385-3283
Illinois(312) 814-2337
Indiana(317) 232-2688
Iowa(515) 965-7162
Kansas(913) 296-7476
Kentucky(502) 564-6895
Louisiana(504) 342-9601
Maine(207) 624-6460
Maryland(410) 880-4970
Massachusetts(617) 727-3982
Michigan(517) 332-1817(H)
 (517) 332-1809(S)
Minnesota(612) 297-2393
Mississippi(601) 987-3981
Missouri(573) 751-3403
Montana(406) 444-6418
Nebraska(402) 471-4717
Nevada(702) 486-5016
New Hampshire(603) 271-2024
New Jersey(609) 292-2424
New Mexico(505) 827-4230
New York(518) 457-2481
North Carolina(919) 662-4644
North Dakota(701) 328-5188
Ohio(614) 644-2246
Oklahoma(405) 528-1500
Oregon(503) 378-3272
Pennsylvania(412) 357-2561
Puerto Rico(787) 754-2188
Rhode Island(401) 277-2438
South Carolina(803) 734-9614
South Dakota(605) 688-4101
Tennessee(615) 741-7036
Texas(512) 440-3809
Utah (801) 530-7606
Vermont(802) 828-2765
Virginia(804) 786-6359
Virgin Islands(809) 772-1315
Washington (360) 902-5638
West Virginia(304) 558-7890
Wisconsin(608) 266-8579(H)
 (414) 521-5063(S)
Wyoming (307) 777-7786


(H) - Health
(S) - Safety



OSHA Area Offices





AreaTelephone     
       
Albany, NY(518) 464-4338     
Albuquerque, NM (505) 248-5302     
Allentown, PA (610) 776-0592     
Anchorage, AK (907) (907) 271-5152     
Appleton, WI (414) 734-4521     
Austin, TX (512) 916-5783     
Avenel, NJ (908) 750-3270     
Baltimore, MD (410) 962-2840     
Bangor, ME (207) 941-8177     
Baton Rouge, LA (504) 389-0474     
Bayside, NY (718) 279-9060     
Bellevue, WA (206) 553-7520     
Billings, MT (406) 247-7494     
Birmingham, AL (205) 731-1534     
Bismarck, ND (701) 250-4521     
Boise, ID (208) 334-1867     
Bowmansville, NY (716) 684-3891     
Braintree, MA (617) 565-6924     
Bridgeport, CT (203) 579-5581     
Calumet City, IL (708) 891-3800     
Carson City, NV (702) 885-6963     
Charleston, WV (304) 347-5937     
Cincinnati, OH (513) 841-4132     
Cleveland, OH (216) 522-3818     
Columbia, SC (803) 765-5904     
Columbus, OH (614) 469-5582     
Concord, NH (603) 225-1629     
Corpus Christi, TX (512) 888-3420     
Dallas, TX (214) 320-2400     
Denver, CO (303) 844-5285     
Des Plaines, IL (847) 803-4800     
Des Moines, IA (515) 284-4794     
Englewood, CO (303) 843-4500     
Erie, PA (814) 833-5758     
Fort Lauderdale, FL (954) 424-0242     
Fort Worth, TX (817) 428-2470     
Frankfort, KY (502) 227-7024     
Harrisburg, PA (717) 782-3902     
Hartford, CT (860) 240-3152     
Hasbrouck Heights, NJ (201) 288-1700     
Guaynabo, PA (787) 277-1560     
Honolulu, HI (808) 541-2685     
Houston, TX (281) 286-0583     
Houston, TX (281) 591-2438     
Indianapolis, IN (317) 226-7290     
Jackson, MS (601) 965-4606     
Jacksonville, FL (904) 232-2895     
Kansas City, MO (816) 483-9531     
Lansing, MI (517) 377-1892     
Little Rock, AR (501) 324-6291     
Lubbock, TX (806) 472-7681     
Madison, WI (608) 264-5388    
Marlton, NJ (609) 757-5181     
Methuen, MA (617) 565-8110     
Milwaukee, WI (414) 297-3315     
Minneapolis, MN (612) 348-1994     
Mobile, AL (334) 441-6131     
Nashville, TN (615) 781-5423     
New York, NY (212) 466-2482     
Norfolk, VA (804) 441-3820     
North Aurora, IL (630) 896-8700     
North Syracuse, NY (315) 451-0808     
Oklahoma City, OK (405) 231-5351     
Omaha, NE (402) 221-3182     
Parsippany, NJ (201) 263-1003     
Peoria, IL (309) 671-7033     
Philadelphia, PA (215) 597-4955     
Phoenix, AZ (602) 640-2007     
Pittsburgh, PA (412) 644-2903     
Portland, OR (503) 326-2251     
Providence, RI (401) 528-4669     
Raleigh, NC (919) 856-4770     
Sacramento, CA (916) 566-7470     
Salt Lake City, UT (801) 487-0073     
San Diego, CA (619) 557-2909     
Savannah, GA (912) 652-4393     
Smyrna, GA (404) 984-8700     
Springfield, MA (413) 785-0123     
St. Louis, MO (314) 425-4249     
Tampa, FL(813) 626-1177     
Tarrytown, NY (914) 524-7510     
Toledo, OH (419) 259-7542     
Tucker, GA (770) 493-6644     
Westbury, NY (516) 334-3344     
Wichita, KS (316) 269-6644     
Wilkes-Bame, PA (717) 826-6538     
Wilmington, DE (302) 573-6115     




OSHA Regional Offices




Region I
(CT,* MA, ME, NH, RI, VT*)

JFK Federal Building
Room E-340
Boston, MA 02203
Telephone: (617) 565-9860


Region II
(NJ, NY,* PR,* VI*)

20 I Varick Street
Room 670
New York, NY 10014
Telephone: (212) 337-2378


Region III
(DC, DE, MD,* PA, VA,* WV)

Gateway Building, Suite 2100
3535 Market Street
Philadelphia, PA 19104
Telephone: (215) 596-1201


Region IV
(AL, FL, GA, KY,* MS, NC, SC,* TN*)

Atlanta Federal Center
61 Forsyth Street, S. W., Room
6T50
Atlanta, GA 30303
Telephone: (404) 562-2300


Region V
(IL, IN,* MI,* MN,* OH, WI)

230 South Dearborn Street
Room 3244
Chicago, IL 60604
Telephone: (312) 353-2220


Region VI
(AR, LA, NM,* OK, TX)

525 Griffin Street
Room 602
Dallas, TX 75202
Telephone: (214) 767-4731


Region VII
(IA,* KS, MO, NE)

City Center Square
1100 Main Street, Suite 800
Kansas City, MO 64105
Telephone: (816) 426-5861


Region VIII
(CO, MT, ND, SD, UT,* WY*)

1999 Broadway. Suite 1690
Denver, CO 80202-5716
Telephone: (303) 844-1600


Region IX
(American Samoa, AZ,* CA,*
Guam, HI,* NV,* Trust
Territories of the Pacific)

71 Stevenson Street
Room 420
San Francisco, CA 94105
Telephone: (415) 975-4310


Region X
(AK,* ID, OR,* WA*)

1111 Third Avenue
Suite 715
Seattle, WA 98101-3212
Telephone: (206) 553-5930


*These, states and territories operate their own OSHA-approved job safety and health programs (Connecticut and New York plans cover public employees only). States with approved programs must have a standard that is identical to or at least as effective as, the federal standard.




Footnote(1)(If installed before March 15. 1991, not less than 30 inches (76 cm). (Back to Text)