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Non-Fabrication Processing

Die Attach and Bonding

After separation into individual dies, the functional devices are attached to a lead frame assembly. Usually the chips are attached with an epoxy material. Once attached to the lead frame, electrical connections must be provided between the integrated circuit and assembly leads. This is accomplished by attaching aluminum or gold leads via thermal compression or ultrasonic welding.

The following are the potential hazards of die attach and bonding.

Epoxy Resins

Potential Hazard

  • Possible employee exposure to epoxy resins. Epoxy resins can cause both dermal and respiratory problems.

Possible Solutions

  • Identify epoxy resin hazards and perform appropriate exposure evaluations.
    • Perform exposure measurements for the solvents used.
    • 29 CFR 1910.1000 Table Z-1 contains permissible exposure limits for various chemicals.
    • Address all dermal exposures.
  • Provide appropriate ventilation to reduce solvent concentration levels in the air.
  • Provide PPE as appropriate to prevent eye and skin contact. [29 CFR 1910 Subpart I]
  • Use respiratory protection when necessary to further reduce exposure and protect employees. [29 CFR 1910.134]

Additional Information

  • Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123, (January 1981). Provides a table of contents of guidelines for many hazardous chemicals. The files provide technical chemical information, including chemical and physical properties, health effects, exposure limits, and recommendations for medical monitoring, personal protective equipment (PPE), and control procedures.

OSHA Safety and Health Topics Pages:

Metals

Potential Hazard

  • Possible employee exposure to metal fumes from thermal compression bonding.

Possible Solutions

  • Identify metal hazards and perform appropriate exposure evaluations.
    • Perform exposure measurements for the compounds used.
    • Keep exposures below acceptable exposure levels.
  • Address all dermal exposures.
  • Provide appropriate ventilation to reduce concentration levels in the air.
  • Provide PPE as appropriate to prevent contact. [29 CFR 1910 Subpart I]
  • Use respiratory protection when necessary to further reduce exposure and protect employees. [29 CFR 1910.134]
  • Maintain adequate housekeeping to remove unwanted metals and reduce concentration levels.

Additional Information

OSHA Safety and Health Topics Pages:

Noise

Potential Hazard

  • Potential occupational exposure to high noise levels from ultrasonic welding operations. Noise exposure may lead to occupationally induced hearing loss, hearing impairment, hypertension, elevated blood pressure levels and other health hazards.

possible Solutions

  • A safety and health program that recognizes and addresses the hazards created by noise exposure.
    • Occupational Noise Exposure Standard [29 CFR 1910.95].
    • In addition, an effective hearing conservation program, including specific requirements for monitoring noise exposure, audiometric testing, audiogram evaluation, hearing protection for employees with a standard threshold shift, training and education, and recordkeeping must be made available whenever employee exposures equal or exceed an 8-hour TWA sound level of 85 dBA, Occupational Noise Exposure Standard. [29 CFR 1910.95(c)(1)] [29 CFR 1910.95]
    • Some examples of engineering and work practice controls to help decrease occupational noise exposure levels are:
      • Reduce the amount of sound energy released by the noise source.
      • Divert the flow of sound energy away from the worker.
      • Protect the receiver from the sound energy reaching him/her.
      • Maintenance of equipment properly, or replace equipment.
      • Revise operating procedures.
      • Redesign equipment and enclosures.
      • Use acoustical shields and barriers.
      • Wear personal protective equipment.

Additional Information

OSHA Safety and Health Topics Page:

Other OSHA material:

Microscopes

Potential Hazard

  • Prolonged use of microscopes for inspection can lead to eyestrain and other related ergonomic problems.

Possible Solutions

  • Address ergonomics as part of a safety and health program.
  • Use automated inspection equipment when feasible.

Additional Information

OSHA Safety and Health Topics Page:

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